HISTORY OF THE PERSIAN EMPIRE

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Denkard, Book 9
Details of Nasks 1-3 (Ancient Canon of Zoroastrianism)

Translated by E. W. West, from Sacred Books of the East, Oxford University Press, 1897. 

Bag Nask 

fargard 1. The Ahunwar produced before the creation; its divisions, goodness, and use; benefit of its proper recital and sin or imperfect recital; (12) it was the first creature and teaches submission to the king, the reward of Vohuman, dominion given to Ohrmazd, assistance to the poor, entrance of the destroyer; use of this saying by the degrees, classes, and chieftainships; the summing up of liberality (47)

1. Propitiation for the creator Ohrmazd and all angels.

2. The first of the twenty-two fargards of the Bag [1] is the Ahunwar [2] of the Bagan [3], about the production by Ohrmazd, before every creation apart from the archangel [4], and on the solicitation of the archangel, of the form of words (rastako milaya) which is the innermost and most comprehensive encompassment (parvand) and best-congregated embodiment (veh-ramaktum kerpo) of the intelligent omniscience of the religion [5].

3. The divisions of this germ of germs, and the origin of the other primitive sayings of the good religion, are the divisibility of the portions (bako) of the Ahunwar. 4. The Ahu of the Ahu-vairyo of the Ahunwar is the first creature [6] which, as regards the first, is specially that creature which is really derived from the creator Ohrmazd, and its adaptation is owing to mankind. 5. The thought (mit) [7] that exists with the first is with the word that is Vairyo, his 'will,' which is in the second created existence (damih), which, as regards the first, is specially the primitive secondary state (dadigarih) of those who are specially characterized by it, who exist as it were with that character, and have become, in that way, in association with the second creature. 6. The conjunction of the first creature -- whose origin (yehevunishno), which is the liturgy, is a existence whose origin had occurred-is the source for the saying; and the distribution of the portions thereof is the whole saying of a liturgical kind; also its name is Yatha-ahu-vairyo, the spirit through which it is set going is the lore of the religion, needful among the creatures, the creations arose through wisdom for that purpose, and they, too, were produced on the solicitation of the archangel [8]; besides this, that archangels are wise in speaking, and through wisdom are they archangels.

7. And this, too, about the same words, that the ;statement is the best-worded which is spoken, or to be spoken [9]; and the obscurity is not about the sound of the word-elements, but about the manifold nature of the actual meaning (kabedih-i sang-icho), which is the character of the statement, in the words of the epitome. 8. This, too, that mankind guard the soul from hell by learning, reciting, and practicing it, and the body from death [10] by likewise perpetually persevering therein.

9. This, too, that, as to the first apportionment of the Ahunwar, whose name is the Bagan Ahunwar, when, thoroughly accomplishing it (avavidar) unanxiously (asudakiha), one chants it in a ceremonial, the good work is as when one chants a hundred authorities (radih) of the Gathas, thoroughly accomplishing them unanxiously [11]; and when, accomplishing it (vidar) anxiously, one chants it, such a ceremonial amounts to as much as ten with any other authority [12]. 10. This, too, that, through the same apportionment, while one solemnizes the summing up of the first completion [13], which is the Stud-yasn, as it becomes the rite of one newly initiated (navak-napar) [14], on that day they make the soul of the solemnizer pass three times into the supreme heaven [15].

11. About the grievous sinfulness of imperfectly accomplishing (avidar) the Bagan Ahunwar [16].

12. This, too, that it is made by him in subjection to Ohrmazd, as the first creature made, who gives the body in service to him who is the ruler, and in discipleship to him who is the high-priest of the religion [17]; for this reason, because they are suitable for lordship and mastership in the worldly existence. 13. He who is the highest lord and master is the creator Ohrmazd, and, owing to the same reason, when it made their subjection that to the creator Ohrmazd, he has made it as the first creature made.

14. This, too, that it is taught by it to keep the body in the service of the king of kings [18], whose origin Ohrmazd keeps in his possession; for this reason, because, when his origin is kept in the possession of Ohrmazd, Ohrmazd is over his own if a good ruler is made; him who is thus prepared, when also the worldly existence is necessary for Ohrmazd, he maintains as ruler when the creation is instructed.

15. This, too, that the reward of Vohuman is appropriated (khvesinido) by him who indicates anything which is virtuous, who also utters virtuous recitation, and who likewise teaches perfect abstinence from sin to mankind [19]. 16. For this reason, because the indication of anything virtuous, the utterance of recitation wisely, and abstinence from sin are, as it were, a lodgment materially in good people owing spiritually to the archangels, Vohuman being more particularly the instigator therein; and, owing to the same reason, he in whom there is a like proficiency is of like good works with Vohuman, and adapted to the good works arises the like reward.

17. This, too, that the dominion is given to Ohrmazd by him who may perform those works, manifest from the phrase Tad Mazda tava khshathrem, &c. and its meaning, which is this: 'That, O Ohrmazd! is this dominion of thine, by which benefits (vehagano) are given to him who is justly living and poor [20].' 18. Which is a deliverance this reason, because Ohrmazd created no dominion for the more particular preservation of the poor and the creatures of the worldly existence from the destroyer; but, for the purpose of control over the dominion of him whose strength of rule is the cause of preservation for the poor -- which is continually the wish of Ohrmazd -- the dominion is given to Ohrmazd.

19. And this, too, that, through preservation from the adversary, he has assisted his poor who have preserved friendship for the Spitaman [21]; the adversity of the creatures is the advancement of religion, by supporting the religion; and a friend of the Spitaman becomes an assistant of the supporters of religion. 20. About the entrance (den yatundakih) of the destroyer of the creatures from without [22], and the helplessness of the beneficent spirit thereto.

21. About the girding on of this saying of the religion of Ohrmazd by the three degrees (padman), which are good thoughts, good words, and good deeds; by the four classes, which are priesthood, warriorship, husbandry, and artisanship; and by the five chieftainships, which are house-rule, village-rule, tribe-rule, province-rule, and the supreme Zartoshtship [[Zarathushtrotema]]; and the one summing up (hangerdikih) which is the liberality of the good ruler [23].

22. Righteousness is perfect excellence.


NOTES:

1. The third of the Nasks and fourth of the Gathic division (see Bk. 8, Chap. 1.9, 12). It is an analytical commentary upon the Gathas and the texts associated with them in the two preceding Nasks, devoting a separate fargard to each ha, and selecting very short phrases, or portions (Av. bagha), for explanation and comment; so short that it is usually difficult to identify them in their Pahlavi disguise. The first three fargards are still extant in Yas. 19-21, and a translation of their Pahlavi versions will be found in the Nask Fragments at the end of this volume; but whether the Pahlavi versions, consulted by the writer of the Denkard, were identical with those in the present Yasna is uncertain.

2. The name of the Yatha-ahu-vairyo formula (see Bk. 8, Chap. 1.7). This fargard is still extant in Yas. 19.

3. That is, 'of the apportionments,' or 'of those analyzed.'

4. Possibly the archangel Vohuman, the first of the creatures, may he meant; although the Bundahishn places his creation after the recitation of the Ahunwar (see Bd. 1.21-23). That it was recited before the other creations is clearly stated in Pahl. Yas. 19.2-5, 17-20.

5. See Pahl. Yas. 19.24-27.

6. Ibid. 29.

7. Ibid. Paz. mit = Av. maiti = manas.

8. See Pahl. Yas. 19.20.

9. Ibid. 24.

10. Ibid. 25, i6.

11. Ibid. 6, 7. The MS. has drk instead of drz '100' by mistake.

12. Ibid. 8. The MS. has 'unanxiously' by mistake.

13. Possibly Yas. 59.32-34.

14. Commonly called Nonabar (see Sls. 10.2, 13.2; Dd. 79.4, 11, 12).

15. See Pahl. Yas. 19.9-11.

16. Ibid. 12-15.

17. Ibid. 28, 29.

18. Ibid. 30.

19. Ibid. 31, 32.

20. See Pahl. Yas. 19.35, Yas. 53.9 d, and Chap. 45.10.

21. Ibid. 36.

22. Ibid. 39.

23. Pahl. Yas. 19.44-55.


fargard 2. Excellence is producing suitably, reward of good works (48).

1. The second fargard is the Ashem [1] of the Bagan [2]; it is by that perfect excellence is produced for everyone who produces for anyone else that which is suitable for him [3]; for this reason, because, for the sake of perfect production, there is much unprofitable production, but profitable production is suitably producing. 2. This, too, that the reward of every good work is given by it to mankind, which keeps mankind in diligence when it instructs [4]; because, as the business of all good works is that which instructs and keeps mankind in diligence. the reward of good works which mankind can appropriate by diligence is appropriated by it. 3. And this, too, that advancement is given by it to every good work [5].

4. He who is understanding good works, and yet a suppliant, has thereby made the learned foolish (azan akhanidinido); whoever possesses authority through virtuousness [6] is more particularly for rewarding the doers of good works; whoever, too, can make true decision [7] and adjudication is more particularly for causing the bridge judgment of a criminal, and for thrusting him aside owing to the exhaustion of his good works; and whoever, too, can exercise mediation and wisdom is more particularly for the good government of the world.

5. Of righteousness the excellence is perfect.


NOTES:

1. See Chap. 3.1 n; it is here expressed by its Pahl. equivalent aharayih. This fargard is still extant in Yas. 20.

2. see Chap. 47.2

3. See Pahl. Yas. 20.1.

4. Ibid. 2.

5. See Pahl. Yas. 20.3.

6. Ibid. 4.

7. Ibid. 5.


fargard 3. Worship of Ohrmazd and the archangels, particulars regarding worship (49)

1. The third fargard is the Yenhe-hatam [1]: there is here taught by it the worship of Ohrmazd, which is the law of Ohrmazd, that is, its law is virtuous [2]. 2. This, too, that the worship of Ohrmazd is occasioned by it, which is the asking for life for beings by mankind [2]. 3. And this, too, that the ritual of the males and females of the righteous occurs through it, which is the obeisance for the archangels [3]. 4. And the atonement for crimes (vajagano), because it is a gratification, is all for Ohrmazd personally therefrom; and in connection therewith it amounts to a gratification for Ohrmazd.

5. Here one mentions three particulars [4] which are in one's worship of Ohrmazd of every description. 6. One is when the design (dado) of the person is virtuous, because it is restrained by some virtuousness of thought; this is that which amounts to worship and obeisance for Ohrmazd personally. 7. One is when it teaches an asking for life for mankind, and its ordinance is the protection, nourishment, and other assistance and gratification of mankind; a friend of the primitive worldly creation of mankind produced it, and it comes into connection with the bridge judgment of mankind, for the worship and gratification of Ohrmazd. 8. And one is when one would celebrate the obeisance for the archangels, which is for the sake of strengthening the archangels, each separately, in their control of the business of preparing and managing the world; because it is declared by revelation that to worship is this, that the ceremonial may reach this bridge [5] in company with one (padvand), for the worship and gratification of Ohrmazd; the archangel who is to be strengthened by the ceremonial is one, and mankind are developed by the strength of the archangel.

9. Of righteousness perfect is the excellence.


NOTES:

1. See Chap. 4.1 n; it is here written Yanhe-hatam in Pahlavi. This fargard is still extant in Yas. 21.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 21.1.

3. Ibid. 2, 3.

4. See Pahl. Yas. 21.3.

5. The Chinwad bridge (see Chap. 20.3).


fargard 4. Praise of Zartosht, giving joy to Ohrmazd, good work of reverence, wisdom of Vohuman, benefit of cattle and the worthy, prosperity of the worthy, (10) reverence of the good, supplicants should be contented, the way to heaven, reverence, acquaintance with religion, teaching righteousness, seeing the throne of Ohrmazd, welcoming him, recommending to rulers for benefit, the way of prosperity; (20) a suitable sovereign solicited, the praiser, religion made progressive, zealousness for good works, the man praised above others, assister of the ignorant, wisdom for Ohrmazd; the past, present, and future periods (50).

1. Propitiation for the creator Ohrmazd, and a scornful dole for the evil spirit.

2. The fourth fargard is the Yanim-mano [1] of the Bag, about the praise of Zartosht, that is, his jurisdiction, invocation of blessing (yano) and speaking in reply were such as are declared by the sacred text. 3. This, too, that that jurisdiction of his arose before the blessing, that is, this one decision is made by him about his own, that his own person is first made deserving by him through virtue, and then virtue is prayed for by him [3].

4. This, too, that he has attributed the source and result to Ohrmazd, who gives joy to Ohrmazd; for the source and result of various advantages and various joys are desirable for joy itself, as joy is the acme (roeshman) of every happiness of him whose joy has made an offering (austofrido) to Ohrmazd, because his decision is this, that by him whose joy arises from that thing which is the will of Ohrmazd, its source and result are attributed to Ohrmazd. 5. This, too, that the good work, which is a gratification by lawful gratifiers [4], becomes appropriated by him who shall perform that which is truly reverent; even for this reason, because he who is a lawful gratifier of others, through true reverence, has intended to gratify through the practice of his reverence, and, when thus the gratifier of those persons, the good work of gratification by lawful gratifiers becomes appropriated. 6. This, too, that the wisdom of Vohuman [5] is advanced by him who utters a discourse through Vohuman; for this reason, because the wisdom of Vohuman and its advancement are mostly through discourse. 7. This, too, that the plentifulness and satisfaction of cattle [5] are taught by him who properly maintains the cattle which are in his possession; even for this reason, owing to the multitudes thus belonging to him who properly maintains the cattle which are in his possession, he gains his profit and measure therefrom, and others, who see that gain, are instructed, even as much as he, about the proper maintenance of cattle for their own profit and pleasure.

8. This, too, that benefit [6] being given for the benefit of the worthy man is taught by him who keeps the benefit that is his as the property of the sacred beings; even for this reason, because he gives the benefit that is his unto the worthy man for the purpose of keeping it for the advantage of the sacred beings, and others are instructed about it. 9. This, too, that prosperity [7] being given, in both existences [6], to him who is generous and worthy is taught by him who gives benefit to a worthy man possessing body and life; even for this reason, because a worldly existence and a spiritual one are both his, also his worldly existence is in this existence, and the spiritual one in that existence wherefrom satisfaction for the giving of benefit arrives. 10. This, too, that by him who shall cause reverence [8] of the good, even this is taught, that the sacred beings gratify him who is practicing their will; even for this reason, because good for him, by whom the reverence is practiced, becomes the reply of satisfaction, and the throne of the sacred beings is certain.

11. This, too, that he who was at first has taught even this to mankind, that supplicants [9] for the favor of the sacred beings gratify the sacred beings by being contented (padvaz); even for this reason, because the welcome of a sacred being, supplied by command from the religion, is a virtuousness in the world distinct from that, and the production of a course of generosity, from the sacred beings to mankind, arises really through the contentment of the favored; and mankind thereby become freer from doubt, and believe more in the sacred beings.

12. This, too, that his soul is delivered, or will be delivered, into the supreme heaven [10], who has given something to him who praises the sacred beings and the good ; even for this reason, because even through liberality as to wealth, and the production of a way to the supreme heaven, it is manifest that anything given to the praisers of the sacred beings and the good is a greater liberality. 13. This, too, that the reverence [11] of those needing reverence is occasioned by him who teaches the sacred word (vachako) to the good; even for this reason, because he who is a good teacher of revelation (deno) can bring if into use for the reverence, advantage, and joy of the sacred beings and the good.

14. This, too, that acquaintance with the religion of Ohrmazd [11] is disposed to his own by him who loves Vohuman [11] even for this reason, because true knowledge arises from the discrimination of pure wisdom, and the pure attainment of the most discriminative spiritual lord (ahvo) to the mind, through the purity that constitutes the way within the mind of a spiritual lord, the purity which becomes that way through the lodgment of Vohuman there. 15. This, too, that righteousness is taught [12] by him who keeps his mind connected with righteousness; even for this reason, because his mind attains to an effort for authority, and, ridden by the effort, attains to its acquisition. 16. This, too, that by him who gives commands about the progress of the concerns of Ohrmazd, this is also taught to mankind, namely, when one sees the throne of Ohrmazd [13]; even for this reason, because it is possible to see that throne through the complete progress of the will of Ohrmazd in the world; and whoever gives commands about the progress of the concerns of Ohrmazd, the will of Ohrmazd is necessary in him, the progressive share of those concerns for the people of the world being shown, which is seen even through that foundation of completeness that becomes the throne of Ohrmazd for mankind.

17. This, too, that by him who welcomes Ohrmazd in himself [14], matters only known by even a high-priest are then taught to mankind; even for this reason, because instruction and knowledge are mostly those through a high-priest, and by him who welcomes Ohrmazd in himself, a spiritual lord is then prayed for, who becomes glorious and praised for that which is to be taught, and mankind are taught by him. 18. This, too, that by any one good, who is a servant and pleaser of a good ruler, a good person may be brought forward, to him. who is the ruler, for benefit [15]; even for this reason, because a good man associates other good people with him in the benefit that happens to him, and his character, temper, and disposition are thus due to that; but when bringing himself forward to rulers, through reverence and gratification of the rulers, other good people may also be brought forward by him for that benefit. 19. This, too, that by him who shall virtuously make an accumulation, the way of prosperity [16] from the sacred beings is disclosed to his own; even for this reason, because virtuous accumulation is provided through unnumbered (apenavado) grants of a decider, and, when it is so, he becomes the treasurer of the sacred beings.

20. This, too, that by him who produces advantage for the archangels, the gift of him who is suitable for the sovereignty [17] of the immature (kham) world is solicited; even for this reason, because the advantage which is produced for the archangels being for the sake of his own, the advantage of the immature creation solicited -- the supreme advantage of the primitive good creations -- becomes a virtuous ruler. 21. This, too, that by him who is a praiser of an archangel, the good religion is praised; even for this reason, because the good religion is praise of the archangels, and the praise of the archangels is the good religion. 22. This, too, that the religion of the sacred beings is made progressive [17] by him who shall make an offering (austofrido) to the sacred beings; even for this reason, because making an offering to the sacred beings strengthens the up-holders of religion, and the progress of religion occurs through upholders of religion.

23. This, too, that by him who shall make mankind quite zealous (garemoko) for doing good works, the reward of the good works is also made liberal for mankind; even for this reason, because the producer of the origin is also the producer of the result. 24. This, too, that above the multitude is the praise of the man who is assisting those of virtuous will, who is also the nourishment of the creatures through virtuousness, and whose accumulation is also owing to virtuousness; even for this reason, because whoever is assisting those of virtuous will is an increaser of virtuousness in the world, whoever is the nourishment of the creatures through virtuousness is a producer of the paternity of creatures, and he whose accumulation is owing to virtuousness becomes an improver of the world. 25. This, too, that by him who assists him who is ignorant (khasht), is given and taught to supplicants that which is suitable for them. 26. To assist him who is ignorant is this, such as forming the province, district, domain, and family; maintaining the abode and house of a follower of Vishtasp (Vishtaspano), the fortress and stronghold, and the homestead (khan) of the agricultural peasant; repairing a rugged road; building bridges over rivers; managing a river, aqueduct, or brook; populating desolate places; and doing other things, owing to which any retention (girift-ae) of the comfort and advantage of mankind in the world occurs. 27. And by him who shall do these things, the assistance even of him who is born afterwards, the making of that which is a very advantageous thing suitable for mankind, and also the doing of this for others, are taught.

28. This, too, that it is revealed (chashto) of the spiritual existence that that which is wisdom is for Ohrmazd, for him who is wisdom -- that is, it teaches that acquired wisdom is for him whose innate wisdom is good -- even for this reason, because the spirit, this that has come into his possession, which is acquired wisdom, is given by it to the progeny of Ohrmazd, which is innate wisdom, to increase it; and Ohrmazd is gratified thereby.

29. Of a summary about the continuance that was, the progress of the material existence, and the continuance that will be [18], there is also this: about the continuance that was, which is the beginning, there are the essential thought and beneficent production of the good and evil material existence of its good goodness, and that of its evil vileness; about the progress of the material existence, which is intermediate, there are the dutiful doing of good works, righteousness, and having reward, the committal of crime, wickedness, and having the bridge penalty; and about the continuance that will be, which is the last, there are the government, with wisdom, of that supremely good one who is the origin of all the multitudinous creatures (vasikan), the triumph of goodness over vileness, the admissibility of the good, the inadmissibility of the bad, and the purity of the restoration of the good creatures.

30. Of righteousness perfect is the excellence.


NOTES:

1. See Chap. 5.1 n.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 28.0.

3. Ibid. 1 a.

4. Ibid. 2 c.

5. See Pahl. Yas. 28.1 c, where Pt4 and Mf4 have Vohuman instead of valman.

6. Ibid. 2 b.

7. Ibid. 2 c.

8. Ibid. 4 b.

9. See Pahl. Yas. 28.4 c.

10. Ibid. 4 a.

11. Ibid. 4 b.

12. See Pahl. Yas. 28.4 c.

13. Ibid. 5 b.

14. Ibid. 6 a.

15. See Pahl. Yas. 28.6 b.

16. Ibid. 7 a.

17. Ibid. 7 c.

18. The three periods of the universe: the past eternity, the present existence, and the future eternity.


fargard 5. Complaint of Goshorun, care of cattle, the cattle-master, keeping animals properly, admitting the male, not slaughtering the young, he whose power is most useful, power for worship, reward stimulates perseverance; (10) a virtuous mouth, religious duty develops knowledge, teaching the good, obtaining a throne in heaven, preventing damage From want of resources, recommending the righteous to rulers, what is taught by true service for the king (51).

1. The fifth fargard, Khshmaibya [1], is about this, that complaint is made by Goshorun [2] that there did not exist anyone who properly keeps the cattle that are in his possession; even for this reason, because cattle are increased by such, and others, through design (ahang) and a desire for that increase, act by his example and keep cattle properly; but the complaint of Goshorun is that he does not exist. 2. This, too, that by him who gives orders about the advancement of the concerns of the sacred beings, the care of cattle is produced, and his soul attains to the sacred beings; even for this reason, because the care of cattle is a principal thing in the advancement of the concerns of the sacred beings, and also for the preservation of the soul. 3. This, too, that by him who keeps cattle with a controller (dastobar) who is a cattle-master [3], even a friend of him who is the creator of cattle is taught to the cattle -- the cattle-master and he who is wise in the nourishment, protection, and multiplication of cattle -- even for this reason, because when his cattle are kept with a controller who is a nourisher, protector, and multiplier of cattle, the friendship of a nourisher for the nourished, of a protector for the protected, and of a multiplier for the multipliable is also exhibited by him; and the design of the creator for the creation, through affection, is that of a nourisher for the nourished, of a protector for the protected, and of a multiplier for the multipliable.

4. This, too, that by him who maintains an animal with propriety, it is presented to the sacred beings; even for this reason, because when it is maintained by him with propriety, the will of the sacred beings drives him on, and when the will of the sacred beings drives him on, it is presented by him to the sacred beings. 5. This, too, that when one shall admit the male of animals at the proper time, the mastery (sardarinidano) of the animal is also taught by him; even for this reason, because the admission of the male of the animals is the essential business in the multiplication of cattle, and he who is a multiplier has also taught the mastery of the animals. 6. This, too, that by him who does not slaughter an animal until it attains to full growth, the formation of a store for cattle is also taught; even for this reason, because, from the increasing cattle produced, the profit of mankind arises, and on account of the liking of mankind for profit, they persevere more fully in cultivating cattle, and provide a store for them.

7. This, too, that it is he who is the more powerful of beings -- that is, strength is what is more in use by him [4] -- whose proceeding is for him who is his own, so that he supplies that which it is necessary to supply; even for this reason, because needful bountifulness to one's own needy ones arises through lawful thoughts, lawful thoughts are provided by expelling greed, lust, wrath, disgrace, envy, and other fiends from the body, and a man expelling a fiend from his body becomes of efficient strength. 8. This, too, that he is a very powerful person, for invocation [4], supplication: and attaining to good works, who possesses wealth for the high-priest of the priests, who shall also procure decisions and judgment always justly, and who likewise becomes humble and reverent to the good; even for this reason, because the wealth of multitudes of mankind is for maintaining the desires and pleasure of the body, for procuring decisions and judgment whereto their wishes tend, and for others becoming humble and reverent to them even when their design is vicious; but he who possesses wealth for invocation and connection with the wisdom of the religion, through the high-priest of the religion, and shall procure just decisions and judgment, and becomes humble and reverent to the good, is a putter away of that design and one who, through the putting away of that design, becomes a capable and very powerful person.

9. This, too, that everyone is made to persevere at his proper duty, as to any excellent thing, by him who holds the reward of the diligent, as the sacred beings are proceeding with a pure needy one; for this reason, because the toiling of the body of a person at his proper duty is induced by a desire of reward. 10. This, too, that by him whose mouth (yong) [5] and its appliances are for virtue, the possession of Vohuman is then explained, through this mode, because the maintenance of the mouth and its appliances as virtuous becomes so, when, through protection and assistance of the good, and defeat and smiting of the vile, the reformation of the world occurs; and this, too, is so, when there is an existence of preparation. of the friend of the good and the enemy of the vile, and of friendship of the good and enmity of the vile, through understanding good and evil; and the understanding of good and evil is through possession of Vohuman, and that possession of Vohuman becomes also an explainer of Vohuman.

11. This, too, that by him who gives commands about the progress of the concerns of the sacred beings, his own knowledge of every kind is also developed; even for this reason, because the command being necessary for the personal duty of the good, they also develop the knowledge of every kind for which that commanding of duty and its auspiciousness are suitable. 12. This, too, that by him who teaches the good, the good work is then appropriated which is also an assistance of Zartosht through speaking of the religion; even for this reason, because, on account of those of the religion of Zartosht who really constitute the renovation of the universe, the speaking connected with Zartosht -- through the teaching of the good and teachers not of the same religion -- and the assistance through speaking of the religion become the good work appropriated.

13. This, too, that by him who gives anything to that person who praises the sacred beings and the good, a throne is appropriated in yonder world [6] even on the mention of it. 14. This, too, that by him who is teaching that which is for the propitious, the damage that is owing to want of resources [7] in religion is shut out of the world; even for this reason, because, owing to that, he increases the resources of religion of every kind and the advantage therefrom, in the world. 15. This, too, that by him who is bringing him who is righteous forth to the rulers, for beneficence, the utmost assistance is then afforded; even for this reason, because an expectation of the utmost beneficence is further attached by him to the place of obtainment [8].

16. This, too, that by him who gives himself in service unto him who is the supreme king of kings, the way of good thinking [9], of the assistance of pleasure, and of the production of sovereignty by Ohrmazd is disclosed to his own; even for this reason, because the original reason of virtue is the worthiness of mankind owing to the creator and their service unto the creator, and, therefore, as he who is a well-ruling monarch is a creator in the worldly existence, and a recompensing (pado-dahak) leader of the creatures who steadfastly give themselves in service to him, it is then given by him to the creator also; and I teach, besides, that the origin of the virtue of worthiness, which is attached by the creator to his own, is the way that is stated above, and other virtue is also disclosed to his own thereby.

17. Righteousness is excellence that is perfect.


NOTES:

1. See Chap. 6.1 n; it is here written khshmaibe in Pahlavi.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 29.1

3. Ibid. 2 a.

4. See Pahl. Yas. 29.3 c.

5. See Pahl. Yas. 29.7 c.

6. See Pahl. Yas. 29.8 c.

7. Ibid. 9 b.

8. See Pahl. Yas. 29.10 c.

9. Ibid. 10 b; we should probably read hu-manishnih, 'pleasant dwelling,' instead of hu-minishnih.


fargard 6. Enlarging the priestly assembly, glorification of Ohrmazd, worship of Vohuman, the ceremonial becomes greater through virtue, the extender of religion, discrimination as to duty, giving to the needy, granting the leadership; selecting the better of two ways; (10) the discriminator of sagacity, thinking of eternity, preventing reverence of demons, practicing liberality, persistence in virtue and attachment to the sacred beings for sake of reward, advantage of the righteous (52).

1. The sixth fargard, Ad-ta-vakhshya [1], is this, that by him who is a wise upholder of the dignity of a priest's leadership, the priestly assembly [2] wanted for performing religious rites (deno) is enlarged; for this reason, because the nature of the person, whose resources are bounty for the needy, eagerly becomes a causer of exertion for the teaching (amuko) of accomplishments. 2. This, too, that by him whose habits are virtuous the glorification of Ohrmazd [3] is accomplished and taught; even on this account, for the sake of whatever advantage and pleasure are due to virtue, they, indeed, whose habits are virtuous, glorify him, moreover, who is the creator of those virtuous habits, who is Ohrmazd himself. 3. This, too, that by him who speaks virtuous words the performance even of the worship of Vohuman [3] is also taught; even on this account, because of the comeliness and desirableness of virtue, the good make it an example and speak virtuous words, and virtuous speaking is the worship of Vohuman. 4. This, too, that the ceremonial which he whose way is virtuous shall accomplish becomes greater [4] thereby; even for this reason, because the sacred beings come more particularly to the ceremonial of those of pure dispositions and virtuous ways, and accept it.

5. This, too, that he who is a producer of benefit for promoters of good works becomes an extender [5] of the teaching of religion; even for this reason, because from producing benefit for promoters of good works arises an increase of good works, from an increase of good works arises further progress of the will of the sacred beings, from further progress of the will of the sacred beings arises more progress of the good religion, and from more progress of the good religion arises an extension of the teaching of the good religion in the world. 6. This, too, that by him who possesses authority through virtue, discrimination [6] as to the regulation of duties is taught to mankind; even for this reason, because the possessor of authority through virtue is a man who becomes a decider and ruler, and mankind learn and practice to exercise the disposition, habits, and custom of rulers.

7. This, too, that he who is a giver of the needful to his own needy ones has given himself to Zartosht; even for this reason, because the needful being given to one's own needy ones is the existence of true liberality, which is a compendium of the religion of Zartosht; by him who is thereby ennobled (vaspu-harakani-aito) the religion of Zartosht is then put on, and whoever has put on the religion of Zartosht [has given himself to Zartosht. 8. This, too, that by him who] [7] gives the leadership [to him who is suitable for the leadership] [7] even the wisdom of that man is increased; for this reason, because even the wisdom of the suitable, through which they accomplish that leadership, when the leadership comes to them, grows further with the glory of that duty.

9. This, too, that he who has to select the better of two ways, which are good and bad [8], is assisted to do so by the benefiters' ordeal of fire and ore; even for this reason, because that is discrimination by the eye of wisdom, which is the way of good intention, and the benefiters are decisive declarers of acquittal and incrimination through fire and metal, the two good discriminators; and when the business is of a different kind, even then both are associates in discriminating, and are powerful connections of one another. 10. This, too, that he who shall do that thing from which advantage of the sacred beings arise is empowered to discriminate truly that which is sagacious [9] in thought, word, and deed; even for this reason, because from doing anything for the advantage of the sacred beings arises the reign of the will of the sacred beings in the world, from the reign of the will of the sacred beings in the world arises the freedom from danger of the temporal existence of the world, and the freedom from danger of tile temporal existence of the world contributes also to the power of him who is sagacious in discriminating truly as to thought, word, and deed.

11. This, too, that by him who thinks of the affairs of Ohrmazd the eternity (hamayikih) of Ohrmazd [10] and also the consideration of his own eternity by Ohrmazd are thought of; even on this account, because mankind mind and serve Ohrmazd for the sake of even the hope [10] of eternal benefit from him; and they who think of him, through the eternal benefit due to him, are themselves increasing that benefit which is eternal, and it is thought eternal by him that thinks of that eternal thing his own eternity. 12. This, too, that he who restrains a person from reverence of the demons, has diverted him from making the world sickly; even for this reason, because whoever has restrained a person from reverence of the demons, has diverted a demon from making the world anarchical and from making the world sickly. 13. This, too, that by him who shall practice liberality benefit for the sun is caused, and by him who shall cause benefit for the sun benefit is caused also for the nature of the body of mankind; even for this reason, because it is declared that the sun has progressed through the radiance and glory of the liberal, and the nature of the body of mankind is preserved by the sun.

14. This, too, that by him whose desire is for anything virtuous, and who possesses authority through virtue, mankind are controlled to persist (maninidano) in virtue for receiving a reward [11]; even for this reason, because he whose desire is virtuous seeks happiness for everyone -- a preeminent desire for the happiness of human existence being the desire of mankind for virtue -- and by him who requires that, and strives for it fully, so far as possible for him, anyone whatever is brought to persist in virtue and to constrain the spirit for reward; and by him who possesses authority through virtue the continuance of mankind in authority and their persistence and instruction in virtue are attached to good works and are brought to reward. 15. This, too, that by him who possesses happiness through appropriation of the sacred beings mankind are attached to the sacred beings for receiving a reward [12]; even for this reason, because, on account of the possession of happiness through appropriation of the sacred beings, he possesses it through the assistance and gratification of the good, and mankind shall therefore make him an example; it also becomes a good work for them, and they adhere to the sacred beings for receiving a reward.

16. This, too, that by him who produces the benediction of him that is a conductor of investigation and a righteous judge, and who shall also occasion the reverence of the good, the teaching of the advantage of the righteous [13] is likewise performed; even for this reason, because the essentials (madigan) of the advantage of the world are two -- one owing to justice, and one owing to generosity -- and it is declared that the advantage of him who possesses the blessings of the judges is owing to the justice of the judges, and the advantage of him who is reverent to the good is owing to the generosity of the good in developing the world, and the righteous teach about it.

17. Righteousness is perfect excellence.


NOTES:

1. See Chap. 7.1 n; it is here written at-takhshe in Pahlavi.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 30.1 a.

3. Ibid. 1 b.

4. Ibid. 1 c.

5. Ibid. 2 a.

6. See Pahl. Yas. 30.2 b.

7. The words in brackets are the translation of a passage that was inserted in the MS. at the time the folios were patched. The original copyist of the MS. has evidently omitted a passage, but whether the repairer has made the insertion merely by guessing from the context (which is quite possible), or by referring to some other MS., is uncertain.

8. See Pahl. Yas. 30.3 b.

9. See Pahl. Yas. 30.3 c.

10. Ibid. 4 c.

11. See Pahl. Yas. 30.10 b.

12. Ibid. 10 c.

13. See Pahl. Yas. 30.11 c.


fargard 7. The world freed from destruction, apostates forced to make the religion progressive, triumph of the priests, miraculousness of Ohrmazd, decision of acquittal or conviction, rite of ordeal, appointing a priest, reciter of revelation; (10) teaching employers their responsibility, thinking of religion, teaching the nature of the sacred beings, giving a sheep to the diligent and moderate, development of the world and sheep, inward prayer, keeping animals and men as property, giving predominance to those of Gayomard's nature, telling rulers the truth; (20) keeping sovereignty within Ohrmazd's will, illustrating the information due to religion, the virtuous course of the liturgy, he whose Vohuman is Ohrmazd's progeny, the good creation is Ohrmazd's, a ruler as to actions, giving Spandarmad to Ohrmazd, wisdom that arises through care of cattle, admitting the male; (30) the way to heaven, assistance to the renovation, a heart and mind for not being misled, he who sees his sin mingled with good works, giving a loan, non-injury of the innocent, he who makes Ohrmazd ruler in himself, a decider informs others, a proper nurturer is an indicator for others, the demeanor for virtuous statements; (40) indicating the acquitted and convicted, immortal and complete progress, making the soul immortal, persisting in good works, maintaining predominance as high-priest, growth and increase owing to Vohuman, welcoming Ohrmazd in oneself, evidence of the well-informed (53).

1. The seventh fargard, Ta-ve-urvata [1], is that by him who possesses advantage through virtue, the world of righteousness is freed from [2] destruction [3]; even for this reason, because the possession of advantage through virtue arises through the non-participation of the demons and the vile therein, and the participation of the sacred beings and the good; and, when one shall act so, the advantage of spiritual origin becomes more powerful through guarding the advantage from the destroyers. 2. This, too, that, by him who welcomes Ohrmazd in his person, apostates are likewise forced to make the religion of Ohrmazd progressive [4]; even for this reason, because owing to [5] the apostasy of apostates being a religion produced by Ahriman, they are only able to make the religion progressive through the appellation of Ohrmazd; apostasy and priesthood, and the apostates and priests, are fraternal opponents, and whenever the priesthood and multitudes of the priesthood are triumphant, multitudes of the apostates of apostasy perish (aoshend), and when the multitudes of the apostates of apostasy are bold, the priests of the priesthood are weak; and the priests are superior in power and success when their priesthood is properly limited, and their properly limited priesthood, too -- which can arise through mankind -- conssists in the welcome precedence of Ohrmazd.

3. About the completeness (sporikih) of the priesthood in that quality now, when the priests of the multitude are the habitation (mehono) of Ohrmazd, and the power of the priests of the priesthood has increased, the valor of the apostates of apostasy is smitten, and the apostates are defeated by the abundant splendor of the priests, also their power as regards making the religion of Ahriman progressive through the appellation of Ohrmazd is fettered, and they keep apostasy concealed [6].

4. And then also they, with the appellation of priests, truly speak and teach the religion of Ohrmazd, and make it progressive, just as it is solemnized and made easy by them, even though the will of the sacred beings be unheard and undesired through apostasy.

5. This, too, that he proclaims the miraculousness of Ohrmazd [7], who shall appoint for ordeal that which is certainly a doubt; even for this reason, because, through accomplishing an ordeal, that which is doubtful is forcibly rendered visible (venavdahaki-aito) to the eyes, as certain clearness, through the power of the spirit, which is itself a miracle of Ohrmazd. 6. This, too, that by him who shall make a public decision thereon, as to the acquitted and convicted [8], gratification is afforded to him whose maintenance of the dispute [8] is righteous; even for this reason, because the needful is delivered by him to its own requirer who thereby becomes even renowned. 7. This, too, that even the rite of ordeal [is produced] [9] by him [who is an advantage to the righteous; for this reason, because the rite of ordeal is for the advancement of the ordeal, and the religious ordeal] proceeds through sovereignty; these righteous are those of the good religion, and their advantage is that belonging to the multitude, which is the sovereignty now, and everyone who is given for that advantage, to the righteous of those of the good religion, becomes the performer of any rite of ordeal really produced, because the origin of that giving of advantage is even the rite of ordeal. 8. This, too, that by him who gives a priest and righteous man for propagating the religion, the rite of ordeal is also proclaimed; even for this reason, because the teacher and one rightly merciful (hu-amur'zidar) give [10] the sacred text by which even the rite of ordeal is declared.

9. This, too, that he who recites the revelation of Ohrmazd, and who shall do it with exceeding goodness, becomes an increaser of wisdom; even for this reason, because the wisdom of a man increases in these two ways, either he speaks and teaches himself, or he exemplifies the excellence of a portion to the wise who become speakers and teachers of wisdom. 10. This, too, that his homage is for Ohrmazd, who thoroughly teaches a righteous employer of animals and human beings (kira vavir) that he considers him as their controller (dastobar); because, since the productiveness of the completion of the creatures is produced through the nourishment of the creatures by Ohrmazd through his fulfilling his own productiveness, that righteous employer in the world is intend for the nourishment of his creatures, owing to that outward subjection and propitiation of theirs, and the righteous employer is connected with their subjection and propitiation for the creator.

11. This, too, that by him who gives thought to the religion of Zartosht, the soul is given to Zartosht; even for this reason, because with a man's having given thought to the religion of Zartosht is connected the receiving of his soul by Zartosht for preservation from hell. 12. This, too, that by him who teaches the nature of the sacred beings to mankind, consultation with Ohrmazd is also further taught; even for this reason, because the nature of the sacred beings is consulting a spiritual lord, and becomes also the consulting of Ohrmazd.

13. This, too, that by him who keeps the produce of sheep as the property of Ohrmazd, a sheep is given to him who is diligent and moderate [11]; even for this reason, because produce kept as the property of Ohrmazd is for being given for good works, being given for good works is being truly kept as a beginning for the possession of produce, and a beginning truly kept is kept even through a sheep, as a beginning of excellence, in the control (dastobarih) of him who is a diligent and moderate shepherd [12]. 14. This, too, that by him who is liberal to the liberal the increase owing to developers is brought into the world; even for this reason, because a liberal man, on account of even that gift given back to the worthy, becomes even for us -- through the development of the world -- him who is first praised therein with the sacred beings. 15. This, too, that whoever shall form a store for sheep, becomes an agent even in the development of sheep by the creator; because, on account of the increase of sheep through the existence of nourishment for them having arisen, whoever has arranged nourishment for sheep, becomes an agent even in the development of sheep by the creator. 16. This, too, that by him who teaches inward prayer (vachako) to the good, it is also taught to eaters; even for this reason, because, everything connected with eating being declared by the religion, when the religion is taught by any one to the good, in which even that information is proclaimed, even eaters are taught about it. 17. This, too, that whoever maintains a sheep, or human being, as our property, is taught to maintain it through the high-priest of Zartosht; even for this reason, because it is so maintained as the property of the sacred beings, when he maintains it as the property of Zartosht.

18. This, too, that by him who gave predominance to those of the nature of Gayomard [13], the sovereignty also of those of the religion of Zartosht is desired; even for this reason, because the religion of Zartosht is the nature of Gayomard, and the nature of Gayomard is the religion of Zartosht. 19. This, too, that when one is alone among rulers a way of speaking to the rulers such words as are really true is thereby provided; even for this reason, because the utterance of blessings by a solitary person is for advantage. 20. This, too, that by him who keeps the sovereignty which is his within the will of Ohrmazd, the best thing is done unto Ohrmazd; even for this reason, because a sovereignty is so kept within the will of Ohrmazd when he who is the ruler gives to Ohrmazd the individuality in which is the sovereignty, and when its proximity and closeness have given to Ohrmazd that thing which is best and supreme.

21. This, too, that when one teaches the sayings (vachako) of the benefiters, the information which is owing to the religion is illustrated [14] by him to his own; even for this reason, because the knowledge of religion, which is in its causing liberality by him, is increased even by the repeated inquiry of disciples. 22. This, too, that by him who teaches an applicant the virtuous way and doctrine (pand) the liturgy is then taught; even for this reason, because knowledge arises through the virtuous course of the liturgy [15]. 23. This, too, that by him who thinks of the affairs of virtue, the liturgy is maintained and taught with virtuousness [15]; even for this reason, because the maintenance of the liturgy with virtuousness arises through virtuous thinking.

24. This, too, that whoever shall provide the nourishment of creatures with propriety, his Vohuman (good thought) is Ohrmazd's progeny [16]; and whoever properly maintains those which are in his keeping, his position becomes Ohrmazd's fatherhood of Vohuman [17]; even for this reason, because every proper nourishing is that in which the nourished becomes an offspring such as Vohuman unto Ohrmazd; and every proper protection of the creatures, over those which are protected by it, is a fatherhood such as that of Ohrmazd over Vohuman. 25. This, too, that by him who shall provide nourishment with propriety for the creation which is good, it is taught that the good creation was produced by Ohrmazd; even for this reason, because from the nourishment of the creation with propriety, together with the discriminating action of the nourisher, the goodness of the nourished is also evident, from the goodness of the nourished creation the goodness of him who is its creator is evident, and the creator of the good creation is Ohrmazd himself.

26. This, too, that whoever shall spiritually make Ohrmazd the ruler over his own person becomes a ruler as to actions [18]; even for this reason, because whoever is making Ohrmazd ruler over his person is a leader of wisdom, a leader of wisdom is a decider taking account of sin and good works, taking account of sin and good works is abstaining from sin and practicing good works, and owing to abstinence from sin and practicing good works one becomes a ruler over actions. 27. This, too, that Spandarmad [19] is given to Ohrmazd by him who is as reverent unto Ohrmazd as a daughter unto a father; even for this reason, because the Spandarmadic nature (Spandarmadih) is provided by him for Ohrmazd.

28. This, too, that for him who thinks of the care of cattle there arises that wisdom [20] which the control (patih) of cattle gives; even for this reason, because the nature of the wisdom for a production of cattle is provided in mankind, and, when mankind apply their thoughts to seeking that wisdom, they obtain it. 29. This, too, that by him who is admitting the male to cattle at the proper time, the care of cattle is also thought of; even for this reason, because the admittance of the male becomes productiveness, and whoever [21] would cause productiveness thinks also of nourishment.

30. This, too, that by him who has prepared himself for the priests the way to yonder [22] world is taught; even for this reason, because the way to yonder world is declared by the religion, and its indicator is the priest; therefore, by him who is prepared for the priests, through discipleship, that way is known and is made known. 31. This, too, that in him who shall do that which is something that is an assistance to the renovation of the universe, thoughts of the bounty (dahih) of the creator arise; even for this reason, because creativeness is through thinking of the renovation, thinking of the renovation arises through the renovation, the renovation arises through anything which is done that is an assistance of the renovation, the doing of anything that is an assistance of the renovation is through thinking of sagacity, and thinking of sagacity becomes thoughts of the bounty of the creator.

32. This, too, that by him who loves the affairs of the archangels a heart and mind [23], for not being misled from the way of the sacred beings, are recommended to mankind; even for this reason, because from the religion of the sacred beings being loved arises increasing power of the sacred beings, from the increasing power of the sacred beings arises their greater authority among mankind, and from the greater authority of the sacred beings among mankind arises the resistance of heart and mind of mankind, even in their not being misled by the very demons. 33. This, too, that whoever shall act with reverence to Vohuman sees the sin which is concealed in him mingled with good works thereby [24]; even for this reason, because reverence for Vohuman becomes submission (herih) in virtuousness, with virtuous submission are connected freedom from Kikship and from Karbship [25], and with freedom from Kikship and from Karbship is connected one sound of life and eye, whereby he is an observant decider, and atonement for sin arises from good works.

34. This, too, that by him who shall provide liberality for the liberal, the giving of a loan [26] to mankind is also taught; even for this reason, because liberal giving by anyone is accounting for his own debt, and he endeavors to repay it fully observantly and with complete gratification; besides that, the power of liberality becomes extendible among mankind, and through loans and other gifts [26] of generosity (dahishnikih) they become ardent. 35. This, too, that by him who pays homage (franamedo) to the affairs of Ohrmazd, as much as he is able, the non-injury of the innocent is also taught; even for this reason, because to intervene further (frovaftano) with the affairs of Ohrmazd, as much as possible, is first to commit no sin and to perform as many good works as possible, and abstaining from the essentials of sin is non-injury of the innocent. 36. This, too, that by him who possesses a ruler and high-priest Ohrmazd is spiritually made ruler over his person [27]; even for this reason, because, through the requirement of Ohrmazd, the angels are lord and master of the worldly existence of that man.

37. This, too, that whoever decides duty and opinion becomes also an informer of others; even for this reason, because it informs others that he is possessing wisdom, and this is what is said, that 'the wisdom of a man is evident from his deciding as to affairs.' 38. This, too, that whoever shall provide nurture with propriety becomes also an indicator (dakhshakinidar) [28] for others; even for this reason, because the happiness of the nurturer becomes also a happy indicator even for thee; and this, too, is what one says, that 'always good, happy, and free from serfs [29] is he who is not a master of vagabonds (pado-i puan).'

39. This, too, that by him who is a ruler who, by a command given, appoints him who is liturgical (mansarik), and gives anything to him which it is desirable to give, the necessary demeanor for true and virtuous statements [30] is taught; even for this reason, because the uttering of true and virtuous statements, in fearlessness [30] of rulers, is owing to a well established sovereignty, and their well-established sovereignty is more particularly through these two things, good commanding and helpfulness; when they establish that liturgical one by a command given it is good commanding, and when they give anything to him which it is desirable to give the helpfulness is provided; also, owing to their good commanding, the helpfulness is a good establishment of the sovereignty, owing to a well established sovereignty there is fearlessness also in uttering true and virtuous statements, and, owing to freedom from concealment in uttering true and virtuous statements, the necessary demeanor for true and virtuous statements arises. 40. This, too, that he who gives personal service unto the king of kings, and who considers the product (bar) as the property of Ohrmazd, is empowered for indicating the acquitted and convicted [31] by the spirits, his indicators of the acquitted and convicted; even for this reason, because the person being given in service to the king of kings is the preparation (nivarishno) of subjection, and the product being considered as the property of Ohrmazd is to consider the innocence of its origin (bun) and to make the product well-selecting (hu-chinako) through virtuousness; owing to the progress of these two, the virtuousness in the world becomes great and increasing productiveness for all the good spiritual and worldly existences which are in it, even those who are angels indicating the acquitted and convicted.

41. This, too, that by him who becomes immortal progress [32] for him who is immortally progressive, complete progress [32] is given to him who is completely progressive; and its routine (dadistan), too, is even this, that by him who wishes [33] to make that which is his own soul immortal, and would afford it assistance, every benefit is given to him who is a supplicant for every benefit and becomes a giver of every benefit which he begs, which becomes an assistance to him whom he asks in attaining thereto. 42. This, too, that whoever gratifies that which is enjoyment renders his soul immortal; even for this reason, because the soul subsists through good works, and good works are all those which gratify enjoyment. 43. This, too, that whoever keeps himself always in good works [34] has produced perfection and happiness by any goodness and worthiness of his; even for this reason, because keeping oneself always in good works becomes perfect diligence in industry, within perfect diligence in industry is also comprised opposition to any harm whatever, and it is opposite to harm and perfect goodness that are worthy of every happiness.

44. This, too, that by him who possesses wealth as high-priest of the priests, predominance as their high-priest is maintained [35] and taught; even for this reason, because the provision of sovereignty and its progress are really through wealth. 45. This, too, that by him who would act for the pleasure of others, owing to virtue, the growth and increase owing to Vohuman [36] are produced; even for this reason, because that which has given virtuous pleasure is the nourishment of the creatures by the producer of increase and growth.

46. This, too, that by him who welcomes Ohrmazd in himself [37], and teaches good works to mankind, every virtuous instruction is taught; even for this reason, because the welcoming of Ohrmazd in oneself is the non-committal of sin, and the teaching of good works to mankind is more particularly the performance of good works oneself; innocence and the practicing of good works are the end of every instruction, and he in whom they exist becomes a teacher of every goodness. 47. This, too, that by him who shall occasion benefit through him who is a propagator of good works, the evidence of him who is well-informed [38] is taught through one well-informed; even for this reason, because the chief evidence as to sagacity is to occasion benefit for the good. 48. This, too, that by him who gives commands as to the affairs of Ohrmazd, Ohrmazd is made welcome in his person [37]; even for this reason, because the throne of Ohrmazd in the worldly existence is more particularly in a ruler of well-commanding person.

49. The excellence of righteousness is perfect.


NOTES:

1. See Chap. 8.1 n.

2. Assuming that mun, 'which,' stands for min.

3. See Pahl. Yas. 31.1 b.

4. See Pahl. Yas. 31.1 c.

5. Assuming that la, 'not,' stands for rai.

6. The passage in the Pahlavi commentary on this Nask, which is here described, must evidently have been written shortly after some great triumph of the priesthood over some heresy, probably either that of Mani, or that of Mazdak.

7. See Pahl. Yas. 31.2 b.

8. Ibid. 3 a.

9. Ibid. 3 b. The words in brackets translate a passage inserted in the MS. at the time the folios were patched, like that in Chap. 52.7, 8.

10. Assuming that yehevund, 'they are,' stands for yehabund.

11. See Pahl. Yas. 31.10 a.

12. Ibid. 10 b.

13. See Pahl. Yas. 31.11 b, and Bk. 8, Chap. 13.1.

14. See Pahl. Yas. 31.6 a.

15. Ibid. 6 b.

16. Ibid. 8 a.

17. Ibid. 8 b.

18. See Pahl. Yas. 31.8 c.

19. Ibid. 9 a, and Bk. 8, Chap. 9.3.

20. Ibid. 9 a.

21. Assuming that min,' from,' stands for mun.

22. See Pahl. Yas. 31.9 b.

23. Ibid. 12 b.

24. See Pahl. Yas. 31.13 c, where, after homanih, J2, Pt4, and Mf4 insert the following words: vinas den avo kirfako gumikhto yekavimunedo, madam aharayih ac sardar homanih.

25. Pahl. akikih va-akarapih; see Bk. 8, Chap. 35.13 n for the two idolatrous priestly tribes here alluded to. On its second occurrence the first word is corrupted into akas which closely resembles akigih in Pahlavi letters.

26. See Pahl. Yas. 31.14 b.

27. See Pahl. Yas. 31.16 a.

28. Ibid. 17 c.

29. Pahl. avaruno; but, as freedom from servants is not exactly an Oriental idea of happiness, the word may also he read analono, a possible variant of analano, 'unlamenting.'

30. See Pahl. Yas. 31.19 b.

31. See Pahl. Yas. 31.19 c.

32. Ibid. 21 a; amarg-rubishnih and hamak-rabishnih are Pahlavi translations of Av. Ameretat and Haurvatat, as may be seen in Ibid. 6 b.

33. Written yetibuned with mu above it as a partial correction into yezbemuned which is evidently the proper word.

34. See Pahl. Yas. 31.21 a.

35. Ibid. 21 b.

36. Ibid. 21 c.


fargard 8. Not being deceived by an apostate, making Spandarmad an archangel, wisdom teaches not to destroy, teaching how to learn, strengthening the archangels and the good, loving Vohuman, giving thought to religion, keeping wealth in Zartosht's control, destiny controlled by self, good works becoming one's own (54).

1. The eighth fargard, Hvaetumaiti [1], is that by him who teaches wisdom to others the not being deceived by an apostate into confusing a righteous one (aharubo-barishih) is also taught [2]; even for this reason, because he who has taught is not deceived.

2. This, too, that by him who is as reverent unto Ohrmazd as a daughter unto a father, and who is also a gratifier of virtuous doers, Spandarmad [3] is made one of the archangels, and one is also made to love her; even for this reason, because through that Spandarmadic one being reverent unto Ohrmazd, and the gratification of the good by him, the archangels love and preserve her Spandarmadic nature (Spandarmadigih). 3. This, too, that he who is loving Vohuman is taught by his wisdom not to destroy (nasaninidano) [4] the religion of Ohrmazd; even for this reason, because wisdom maintains the religion in virtue, and others are taught about it.

4. This, too, that by him who gives himself in discipleship unto the priests, and who asks again that which he does not understand, learning (amuko) is taught; even for this reason, because the asking for knowledge again by him who has given himself in discipleship to a wise priest, increases knowledge; and the friends of knowledge, therefore, make him an example, and shall practice asking again, that which they do not understand, from the disciples of the priests.

5. This, too, that whoever is in accordance with Zartosht, through pure affection, becomes, in like manner, him who is giving strength to the will of the archangels and the commands of the good; even for this reason, because these two capabilities are of the special nature of Zartosht. 6. This, too, that through the discrimination of him who loves [5] Vohuman, Ohrmazd is gratified; even for this reason, because one loving Vohuman is loving wisdom and has taught wisdom, wisdom taught is discrimination, and the discriminator becomes a gratifier of Ohrmazd.

7. This, too, that whoever gives thought to the religion of Zartosht is taught wisdom; even for this reason, because all the wisdom of the good religion is taught to him by giving thought. 8. This, too, that whoever has kept wealth in the control [6] of Zartosht becomes taught, and is one who is reverent to the benefiters; even for this reason, because whoever is reverent to the supporters of religion keeps wealth in the control of the supporters of religion, and, when kept by him in their control, it is kept by him in that of Zartosht.

9. This, too, that his destiny is connected with himself who practices industry. 10. This, too, that his good works for arranging the creation become his own who has fully prepared his own person.

11. The excellence of righteousness is perfect.


NOTES:

1. See Chap. 9.1 n; it is here written khvamaito in Pahlavi.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 32.1-4.

3. See Pahl. Yas. 32.2 c, and Bk. 8, Chap. 9.3.

4. Ibid. 4 c.

5. Ibid. 8 c. It is possible to read the verbal stem gosh, 'here,' instead of dosh (Av. zush); but this is hardly possible in 2, and goshidano is not the usual Pahlavi for 'to hear.'

6. See Pahl. Yas. 32.9 b.


fargard 9. The Gathic lore, priestly-controlled action, command of the liturgy, personal assistance to the creatures, reverence, causing progress for one's own, benefit for a cultivator through cattle, making righteousness one's own, three things promoted by submission, pleasure of energy (55).

1. The ninth fargard, Yathaish [1], is that by him who praises Ohrmazd his work in the Gathic lore [2] is taught; even for this reason, because the reason of the praise even of Ohrmazd is for his works, and by him who extols any work the performance of that work is also taught; moreover the work of Ohrmazd, which is the Gathic lore, is pure goodness. 2. This, too, that by him who increases the propagators of good works priestly-controlled action (radik-kunishnih) [3] is taught; even for this reason, because the advancement of merit and the action of priestly chieftainship are the two maxims (vachako) of one who, when there is reason, exalts progressive merit when he increases the propagators of good works; and when progressive merit is exalted priestly-controlled action is praised and also taught.

3. This, too, that what is worthy, and what is coveted for every worthy man, is produced by him for whom the command of the liturgy is the reckoning for him who is habitually sagacious; and this statement also indicates the explanation of rulers and all who are needing those of the world for one combined effort, who, in the immature world, have to trust a command that is at one time sagacious. 4. This, too, that personal assistance is liberally given (radinido) to the creatures of the good beings by him whose deeds are an assistance of the renovation of the universe; and this statement, too, also indicates the great power of any good work whatever, because every good work, being an assistance of the renovation, becomes liberality to the immature (kham) creation.

5. This, too, that whoever teaches to a son reverence unto his father has also appropriated the reward for reverence unto the creator for teaching that person; even for this reason, because express reverence unto parents and service to them are connected with reverence unto the creator and service to him.

6. This, too, that whoever is personally progress for him who is his own [4] -- that is, for any one whatever among those who are needing him -- becomes the happiness of the. creator who is the maker of the original good creations; and this statement also indicates as to whom it is, when, through him whose decision is progress -- which arises through that which occurs when the decision is given that becomes for every one that which is needful for him -- there is happiness that is concentratedd. 7. This, too, that by him who is causing benefit for him who is a cultivator cattle [5] are multiplied; even for this reason, because a gratifier of the performers of tillage is multiplying tillage, and cattle are the chief tillage of the world.

8. This, too, that the religion which is the way of righteousness is made his own [6] by him who is a good thinker about the religion of righteousness.; and this statement, too, also indicates the limit of reliance (astishno) upon the good religion; because whoever is not a good thinker about the good religion, even though he be a reciter of revelation, becomes really an apostate; whoever is a good thinker, but not about the good religion, become really an infidel; and whoever thinks truly becomes a good thinker about religious righteousness and the statements in the good religion. 9. And about three statements, the bringer forward for all mankind is your submission to the sacred beings; one is of the produce (bar), one of the origin (bun), and one of the body and life; that of the produce is the exertion from which there is produce, that of the origin is the advantage for which the origin is requisite, and that of the body and life is the thought of the proposer (rayinidar), which considered both as submission to the sacred beings. 10. This, too, that connected with the sitting-place of the sage is the excessiveness of the pleasure [7] for those causing pleasure, for the upper classes (avarigano) of Iran, and for the energy (patukih) [7] of the diligent.

11. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness.


NOTES:

1. See Chap. 10.1 n; it is here written yatayish in Pahlavi.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 33.1 a.

3. See Pahl. Yas. 33.1 b.

4. See Pahl. Yas. 33.3 a.

5. Ibid. 3 b, c.

6. Ibid. 5 c.

7. See Pahl. Yas. 33.13 a.


fargard 10. Advantage of doing good works, injuring an apostate, he who is eager for knowledge, slaying an apostate, development by Vohumanic rule, the ceremonial a great ordinance, a ceremonial of the needy, the way of righteousness, reward of a teacher of professionals (56).

1. The tenth fargard, Ya-shyaothana [1], is that for him who is practicing good works [2] as much as it is possible for him to do, an efficacious reason for the renovation of the universe is afforded assistance; even for this reason, when every good work is an assistance to the renovation, then -- according to the declaration that whoever does much more good work is more assisting the renovation -- by him who is practicing good works as much as it is possible for him to do, an efficacious reason for the renovation is afforded assistance. 2. This, too, that the apostate [3], who is the seduction of mankind, is injured by him who devotes himself to Ohrmazd; even for this reason, because he is dislodged and is elucidated (adivagi-aito roshani-aito), and there arises a class of mankind who see the admission (parva-nakih) of the apostate into hell, and he is disabled when it is seen by them.

3. This, too, that by him who is eager [4] for knowledge, knowledge is grasped and taught; even for this reason, because knowledge is taught through that which is the instruction of every science and the original desire for it, and mankind shall extol his knowledge; it is also coveted by them for being taught, and they mount and grasp it. 4. This, too, that to slay [5] an apostate is taught by the good one who is united (hami-ait) with a good man; even for this reason, because the destruction (aosh) of Ahriman arises from the union of the good. 5. This, too, that by him who is a disturber (vishuftar) as to Vohuman the production of development through Vohumanic rule [6] is taught; sinners lawfully subjected to the bridge judgment (puhalinido) for Vohumanic disturbance, and the command for it by rulers and high-priests, being a preparation for the development of the world.

6. This, too, that a great ordinance [7] is taught by him whose ceremonial [8] is for Ohrmazd; even for this reason, because a comprehension of Ohrmazd and serving him are the foundation of joy (parkan bun), and the ownership and concentration (hangerdikih) of all good works are themselves the great ordinance of the faithful whose preparation is through the ownership, and their welcome is more particularly in the ceremonial; owing to the same reason, the original possession of the great ordinance of the ceremonial which is Ohrmazd's own, and of other good works -- even though relating to the ceremonial of Ohrmazd of every kind owing thereto -- is necessary for the manifestation of the great ordinance, and is incorporated (ham-tanu) with it when it becomes manifest as a great ordinance, or as more than a great ordinance; even then its extent (valishno) is over this joy. 7. This, too, that the performance (sakhtarih) of a ceremonial [9] of the needy is a gift to the worthy of the creation, and a gift to the worthy of the creation is the attraction (hakhtarih) of a ceremonial of the needy.

8. This, too, that the way of righteousness [10], also that through which that way is seen, and likewise the reward of those lonely-laboring (aevar'zikan) therein are taught by him whose deeds are an advantage to the sacred beings; even for this reason, because the advantage of the sacred beings is the advantage of the multitude, and the advantage of the multitude, which is itself the religion of the sacred beings that is a guide, is the way of righteousness and also that through which is the reward of those lonely-laboring. 9. This, too, that even the reward of a teacher of professionals, which is the profit of the profession, is liberally given and appropriated for the professionals taught; even for this reason, because the business of the sacred beings has profited by the instruction (amuko).

10. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness.


NOTES:

1. See Chap. 11.1 n; it is here written ya-shaotno in Pahlavi.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 34.1 a.

3. Ibid. 8 a.

4. see Pahl. Yas. 34.9 a.

5. Ibid. 10 c.

6. Ibid. 11 b.

7. Ibid. 12 a, b.

8. Ibid. 12 a.

9. See Pahl. Yas. 34.12 a.

10. Ibid. 12 c.


fargard 11. All good works belong to him who teaches virtue, doing the best for one's own, he whose work is good work, he for whom the best occurs in both existences, the worship of Ohrmazd, a leader in religion, a server of religion, the authorizer of a wish for life; (10) giving acceptance, hints, and words to Ohrmazd, teaching the words of Ohrmazd, providing care for fire, teaching the religion with joyfulness, obeisance, strengthening fire for its greatest work, being informed as to religion, sagacity of teaching words and actions, praising the perfection of Ohrmazd's body, all excellence is both root and fruit; (20) invoking Ohrmazd as lord, invoking by name, benefit for one race is felt by all, he who is the sacred beings' own, and when his own is in their guardianship, giving life to mankind, obtainer of Ohrmazd's friendship, causing righteousness and the propitiousness of Ohrmazd, his perpetual guardianship (57).

1. The eleventh fargard, the Yasna [1], is that the whole of the good works which are to accomplish, and those, too, which are accomplished [2], are appropriated by the righteous man who teaches virtue [3] to the righteous; even for this reason, of the good works which one accomplishes, and those, too, which are accomplished, there is all one store (anbar), from the work (var'zo) of the original good creation even to the renovation of the universe, and ever afresh the teaching of virtue by those who are righteous comes to the accumulation of the righteous and the accomplishment of that store, and they, too, are in possession of that store, in partnership with the other righteous. 2. This, too, that it is because he would do the best for his own [4], whose meditation of the liturgy is for those who are archangels, and who also maintains, for the assistance of the good, the strength which is his for the existences. 3. And this statement indicates the great participation of any one in that store, because when that store is really an accumulation of work on the way, for the partners in that store who have done more, and also those who have accomplished less, and remains, moreover, in the possession of them all, then, as to those accomplishing more of it, through the original possession of most of that work, and also through that which occurs when the accomplishers have attained to that plenty more particularly owing to their more labor, and likewise through the property. liberally, largely, and lordlily, of those accomplishing more, and the indigence, unafflictedly [5], scantily, and subordinately, of those accomplishing less, it is reasonable to speak of that store as in their possession, and of their superiority as greatly over those accomplishing less. 4. This too that his work is good work whose liberality is for the archangels; even for this reason, because through a little labor for the sacred beings, which is itself that liberality, he contributes duty and good works.

5. This, too, that it becomes best for him, in both existences [6], who teaches a wishing for living in diligence to mankind; even for this reason, because he is a preserver of them through the wishing for living, and his soul, through the diligence owing to him attains perfection, here from mankind and in yonder world from the sacred beings. 6. This, too that the ceremonial and obeisance of Ohrmazd [7] are performed by him who is in the way of like thinking and like praising of the law of Ohrmazd with all the worshippers of Ohrmazd. 7. This, too, that he is in the leadership of his religion [8] who makes the knowledge of religion ever afresh; even for this reason, because every item of knowledge which he provides increases some greatness of it. 8. This, too, that he is in the service of his religion [8] who demands the knowledge of religion ever afresh; even for this reason, because so long as he demands more, he becomes nearer to a knowledge of religion.

9. This, too, that mankind's wishing for life is authorized (dastovarinido) by him who authorizes the production of anything for mankind; even for this reason, because authority (dastobarih) over the production of anything is conjoined with that which is for the wishing for life; so that whosever production of anything is authorizedly, their life is free from any discomfort; and whosever wishing for lire is authorizedly, his production of anything is also authorizedly. 10. This, too, that acceptance, hints, and words are given [9] to Ohrmazd by him who asks again, that which he does not understand of the religion, from him who does understand; even for this reason, because knowledge is completed through these three things: obtainment, hints, and speaking, and all three are asked again by him who does not understand. 11. This, too, that the words of Ohrmazd [10] are taught by him who teaches the acceptance, remembrance, and speaking of the religion; even for this reason, because this is the recital of that compendium (hangerdikih).

12. This, too, that the care [11] and reverence of fire are provided by him who is liberal to a fire as regards anything he supplies for the care and reverence which others shall provide for the fire, and he becomes equally rewarded for it 13. This, too, that by him who teaches the religion of Ohrmazd with joyfulness [12], the care and reverence of fire are provided as declared by the religion; even for this reason, because even that which is taught by him combines with the action due to that teaching. 14. This, too, that the obeisance [13] to those requiring obeisance is arranged by him who loves Vohuman. 15. This, too, that fire is strengthened -- for that work, achieved in the future existence, which is the greatest [14] that exists -- by him who invokes fire with the title of fire; even for this reason, because the title is put by him upon a nature that is laudable, and when invoked by him with that title the praised one is then strengthened by him.

16. This, too, that he becomes informed as to the religion of Ohrmazd [15], who teaches the religion of Ohrmazd with pleasure; even for this reason, because every knowledge is exercised and increased by teaching. 17. This, too, that Ohrmazd is propitiated by the excellent sagacity of him who teaches virtuous words and actions [16]; even for this reason, because sagacity has two parts, the speakable and the workable. 18. This, too, that the bodily form (kerpo) of Ohrmazd is praised as perfection (nevakotumih) [17] by him who elevates (balistinedo) his own soul [18] to the station of the sun [19]; even for this reason, because that bodily form of Ohrmazd exists, and becomes the loftiest and most perfect in the station of the sun.

19. This, too, that all excellence is purely produced for Ohrmazd by him who has root in the possession of Ohrmazd; even for this reason, because, when a root is given to him, fruit is also produced by him, and all excellence is both root and fruit [20]. 20. This, too, that Ohrmazd is invoked with the title 'lord' [21] by him whom Ohrmazd calls; even for this reason, because the interpretation of 'Ohrmazd' is really with the words 'greatly wise lord' (mas danak khudai). 21. This, too, that the names of the sacred beings which are invoked [22] are the praise glorified by any one, and by him who glorifies them they are named; even for this reason, because the names of the sacred beings are the glorification due to their names of praise. 22. This, too, that among those of the same class (ham-goharan), when he shall do it for one race [23], benefit is produced by him for other races within that class; among those of the same races (ham-tokhmakanan), when he shall produce benefit for one species, it is done by him also for other species within that race; and among the same species (ham saradako), when he shall produce benefit for one individual (kerpo), it is done by him for other individuals within that species.

23. This, too, that his personality (khudih) is the sacred beings' own [24], who maintains the rites [25] with the assistance of the righteous. 24. This, too, that his own is in the guardianship [26] of the sacred beings, whose vehemence is through Good Thought; even for this reason, because his bravery is for the law. 25. This, too, that life is given to mankind by him who shall do that which is able to remain good for them. 26. This, too, that the friendship of Ohrmazd is appropriated by him who has Ohrmazd as a guardian, and perpetual guardianship is appropriated by him who teaches to mankind that thing which becomes their perpetual guardianship in yonder world.

27. This, too; that he causes righteousness [27] who thinks of anything which is virtuous. 28. This, too, that he has caused the good commands and propitiousness [28] of Ohrmazd, who gives his body and life [29] to the sacred beings; and body and life are given to the sacred beings by him who affords friendship to the religion of Zartosht. 29. And this, too, that to him who affords friendship to Ohrmazd it occurs owing to the guardianship of Ohrmazd; and that guardianship is perpetually [30] connected with him who teaches to others that thing which always constitutes their companionship with the sacred beings.

30. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness.


NOTES:

1. See Chap. 12.1 n; it is here written yasto in Pahlavi.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 35.5.

3. Ibid. 4.

4. Ibid. 6.

5. Pahl. abeshiha, but it should perhaps be aveshiha, 'unabundantly.'

6. See Pahl. Yas. 35.9.

7. Ibid. 19.

8. Ibid. 22.

9. See Pahl. Yas. 35.25.

10. Ibid. 27.

11. See Pahl. Yas. 36.1. This section implies that the attendant who feeds a fire with fuel supplied by others, obtains an equal share of merit with them.

12. Ibid. 4, 5.

13. See Pahl. Yas. 36.5.

14. Ibid. 6.

15. Ibid. 7.

16. Ibid. 11.

17. Ibid. 14.

18. Ibid. 15.

19. Ibid. 16; the highest grade of heaven below the supreme heaven, which latter is called Garothman (see Sls. 6.3 n).

20. See Pahl. Yas. 37.2 (= 5.2).

21. Ibid. 6.

22. See Pahl. Yas. 38.10-12.

23. Ibid. 13-15.

24. See Pahl. Yas. 39.13.

25. Assuming that atan stands for ayinan, as mun atan is ungrammatical.

26. See Pahl. Yas. 39.15.

27. See Pahl. Yas. 40.7.

28. See Pahl. Yas. 41.6.

29. Ibid. 7.

30. Ibid. 17.

fargard 12. Benefits, pleasing superiors, the best for one's own in every mode, teaching virtue to all, one whose spirit is connected with Ohrmazd, whose words are through Vohuman, who produces long-continued joy, who teaches the proper way to man, who gives heat to fire; (10) assistants of the renovation, the progeny of Ohrmazd, defeating the bad and accepting the good, transformation of the creatures, teaching religion like a priest, wisdom of Ohrmazd, complete mindfulness that is not deceived, maintaining the destinies of the body, conveying to the rulers for benefit; (20) benefit of sovereignty for that which arises, liberality to fire, thinking of righteousness, interrogating religion, progress of religion, pleasure given to a friend, gratification from Ohrmazd, indication of intellect in a vigorous-minded man, the spirit of Ohrmazd, reward taught in the publicity of the sun (58).

1. The twelfth fargard, Ushtavaiti [1], is that the benefit of him who is reverent to the benefiters is the benefit of anyone whatever [2]; even for this reason, because the benefit of the immature creation is owing to carrying out the commands of a benefiting spiritual lord. 2. This, too, that whoever pleases superiors by submission, is pleased by inferiors. 3. This, too, that by him who gives thought to the religion of Zartosht, that which is best for his own in every mode [3] is produced, because he has attained to the religion who is listening best. 4. This, too, that virtue is taught by him to all the creatures of the beneficent spirit, to the righteous whose stepping forth (fravamishno) is for the righteous; even for this reason, because the creatures of the beneficent spirit are all of one nature, and the stepping forth (fragamishno) and hastening of the limbs of one body become those of the whole of that body. 5. This, too, that his spirit is connected with Ohrmazd [4], and his knowledge is accepted, who loves Vohuman; even for this reason, because the spirit who is the original spiritual lord of knowledge is Vohuman. 6. This, too, that just giving is taught by him whose words are through Vohuman [5]; even for this reason, because the speaking of virtuous words becomes the teaching of knowledge in which there is also just giving.

7. This, too, that joy which is of long duration is produced [6] for his own by him who brings forth strength through virtue, and who also assists him who is unborn; even for this reason, because joy which is perpetual increases by both. 8. This, too, that by him who is an assistance of those in the proper way, the proper way is taught to mankind [7]; even for this reason, because he is making mankind long for that way. 9. This, too, that heat is given to fire [8] by him who tells truth to the invokers; even for this reason, because the adversary -- owing to the heat of the fire achieved by the indicator of truth -- is more particularly subdued by the strength of that just one.

10. This, too, that the assistants for the renovation of the universe are the decrees of Vishtasp [9] -- which are through Vohuman -- of Soshyant [10] and Kay Khosraw [11]; even for this reason, because the fragments are possessing a renewer which is their own completion [12], and the completion -- which is through the assistance of the renovation by Vishtasp -- is through what occurs when the religion is set going by him, through which the renovation arises; and the triumph of the completion, which is through an ordinance by Soshyant, is through what occurs when through the ordinance there is thus a decree which sets aside all distress from the creatures, and gives the ordinance to the whole material existence, that which is living and also that which is dead. 11. This, too, that whoever entrusts it with a command given -- which command given entrusts him who supplies the command from revelation -- and it worships what is necessary to worship, is thereby displayed among the existences as the progeny of Ohrmazd [13].

12. This, too, that the defeat of the bad and the acceptance of the good [14] are taught by him who shall provide a righteous gift for the worthy; because both are therein. 13. This, too, that ability for even the transformation of the creatures [15] of Ohrmazd is taught by him who loves Vohuman; even for this reason, because the forward-dragging, and also the backward-dragging, power -- which is in mankind -- is qualified, through changeableness of will, for even the actions of the Vohumanic nature. 14. This, too, that power is taught, to that spirit through whom the creatures are changed, by him whose wisdom is for that which is wisdom; even for this reason, because that spirit is wisdom, and increases in mankind through instruction. 15. This, too, that by him who praises the religion like a disciple, and who also teaches it like a priest [16], it is shown that Soshyant [16] really comes; even for this reason, because the religion, from the first praiser and teacher down to the last praiser and teacher, is connected by discipleship and priesthood, and Soshyant becomes a disciple in the end, and the last priest.

16. This, too, that the wisdom of Ohrmazd [17] is taught by him who shall supply decisions and adjudication from the religion; even for this reason, because the decision of religion is the wisdom of Ohrmazd. 17. This, too, that complete mindfulness, so that they are not deceived [17], is taught through wisdom by him who is as reverent to Ohrmazd as a daughter to a father; even for this reason, because the reverence of a daughter unto a father arises mostly through natural sympathy (ahang-i chitrik), and through the intellectual complete mindfulness of the daughter.

18. This, too, that maintaining the destinies (vakhtan) of the body through the command of the creator is taught by him who teaches the righteous man and the wicked one that thing which becomes comfort to them, to the righteous man as to his body, and to the wicked one as to his soul; even for this reason, because he becomes a friend of the creatures, a friend of the creatures is also a friend of creativeness, and a friend of the creator maintains body and wealth through the command of the creator, and others are taught by him. 19. This, too, that joy owing to him who is powerful is taught him who is righteous only by him -- that is, he is conveying him to the rulers for benefit [18] -- who is an assistance of him who is righteous through capability, that is, he shall do it through exertion of power; even for this reason, because, when he has provided as much assistance as it is possible for him to do, his praise arises through that benefit which is preeminent through his exertion. 20. This, too, that the benefit of sovereignty for that which arises [19] is taught only by him who always thoroughly teaches authority (patih) up to dictatorship (vispo-far-manih); that is, he teaches to others that thing which always arises for them up to dictatorial authority; this is where it is connected by them with the renovation of the universe through the control which is in the tree of germs [20].

21. This, too, that he becomes liberal to fire [21] who shall perform work for fire that is its protection, and so it is taught about it through the obeisance by him whose liberality -- that is his through the obeisance -- becomes liberal, and whose declaration, that arises as to Vohuman, possesses wealth through virtue. 22. This, too, that this thinking as to righteousness [22] is taught only by him -- that is, he thinks -- whose petition for righteousness is ever afresh. 23. This, too, that the religion is interrogated [23] by him who is submissive to superiors and similarly situated (ham-jak) to inferiors.

24. This, too, that the state of the present world (latammanih) for the Mazda-worshipping religion is thoroughly taught where whatever becomes a progress [24] of the religion is whatever is purification for mankind; even for this reason, because the want of progress of the religion is owing to the want of purification of mankind as to the fiend, and when a human being is purified from the fiend, the progress of the religion becomes different. 25. This, too, that pleasure is taught to him who is a friend [25] only by him -- that is, he gives it -- who is a pleasure to him who is a friend; and its routine is really this, that by him who causes pleasure to friends, his having caused pleasure is taught also to them. 26. This, too, that, owing to him whom Ohrmazd teaches joy, it is taught that gratification [26] comes from Ohrmazd; even for this reason, because he is exalted, even in the worldly existence, through that joy which is supreme, and mankind are thereby taught.

27. This, too, that the augmentation of indications as to intellect is taught to him who is a vigorous-minded (tushto-minishno) man [27], by him whose own progress is that towards his own sacred beings; even for this reason, because he fully considers, and delivers the decision, of his own powers, of those, too, of his contemporaries (ham-budikano), and likewise of the chivalry (chirih) of the age; and others are taught about it by him. 28. This, too, that the spirit of Ohrmazd [28] is expounded only by him -- that is, he loves it -- whose close exposition is of Ohrmazd; even for this reason, because he becomes similarity loved with Ohrmazd, so that [29] . . . 29. And this, too, that the reward is taught in the publicity of the sun [30] by him whose friendship is for the Spitaman, which also increases in the day -- that is, it is necessary to perform duty and good works in the day -- but he does not put it aside the second day; even for this reason, because friendship for the religion is through kind regard; and duty in one day, only to put it aside for the second day, becomes affliction (vesh) at the bridge of judgment; also the sun is the most kindly-regarding and swiftest of those visible.

30. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness.


NOTES:

1. See Chap. 13.1 n; it is here written aushtaito in Pahlavi.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 42.1 a.

3. See Pahl. Yas. 42.2 a.

4. Ibid. 2 c.

5. Ibid. 2 d

6. Ibid. 2 e.

7. Ibid. 3 b.

8. See Pahl. Yas. 42.4 d.

9. See Bk. 8, Chaps. 11.1, 13.15.

10. See Pahl. Yas. 42.4 e, and Bk. 8, Chap. 14.14.

11. In the MS. the letters sro are omitted from this name which might, therefore, be read Kayanag; but Kay Khosraw (see Chap. 23) is considered as one of the assistants of the renovation (Dd. 36.3), probably on account of his opposition to idolatry (Bd. 17.7).

12. Pahl. maman baharano kashtar-homond-i nafshman sporikih.

13. See Pahl. Yas. 42.5 b.

14. Ibid. 5 d.

15. Ibid. 5 e; assuming that dam-var'zishnih, 'accomplishment of the creatures,' stands for dam-vardishnih.

16. Ibid. 6 d.

17. Ibid. 6 e.

18. See Pahl. Yas. 42.8 c.

19. Ibid. 8 d.

20. Evidently the many-seeded tree of all germs, opposed to harm and called the proper-curing, energetic-curing, and all-curing; it is renowned in Eranwej and grows in the wide-formed ocean near the Gokereno, or white-Hom plant, which latter is one of the ingredients of the elixir producing immortality in the future existence (see Bd. 9.5, 6, 18.9, 27.2, 29.5).

21. See Pahl. Yas. 42.9 d which Pt4 and Mf4 supply as follows: Aeduno avo hana-i lak atash rado homonam pavan niyayishno.

22. Ibid. 9 e.

23. Ibid. 10 c.

24. Ibid. 11 d.

25. Ibid. 14 a.

26. See Pahl. Yas. 42.14 b.

27. Ibid. 15 c.

28. Ibid. 16 a.

29. Some clause appears to be ommitted here.

30. See Pahl. Yas. 42.16 d.


fargard 13. Obeisance to the archangels, seven kinds of men, Vohumanic attainment to religion, perfection of the first of existences, nourisher of good works; (10) development in virtue, words and actions through complete mindfulness, exposition of the renovation, deciding about duty and opinion, propagation and progressiveness of the religion, protection from the annoying spirit, exploits of the archangels, people shall become supplicant, interested liberality (59).

1. The thirteenth fargard, Tad-thwa-peresa [1], is that the obeisance [2] of the archangels is performed by him who is educated in the recitation for the archangels of one learned in the religion, which is when he has to understand the recitation and to maintain the recitation of revelation with propriety, which is when an enumeration, or form (ainako), as to the qualities of the archangels exists, which is the obeisance for the sacred beings. 2. For, on this subject, one mentions seven kinds of men [3], educated, or well-educated, or ill-educated, who are connected with it in statements by those of the world; the merely educated man, particularly also the physician, explains this which is not mentioned and does not occur, that it is well, or ill, disposed [4]; the merely well-educated man, particularly also the physician, explains this which is mentioned and occurs, that it is well-disposed; the merely ill-educated man, and also the physician, explains this which is mentioned and occurs, that it is ill-disposed; and the merely uneducated man explains anything whatever that is really life [5]. 3. One educated in the recitation for the sacred beings, who when -- on account of the necessity of speaking evil about a learned man -- he is mischievous (anag), so that he keeps in viciousness and has remained in the obeisance for the sacred beings, is called not ransomed (la takhtik).

4. One ill-educated in the recitation for the sacred beings, which is when it happens that he keeps in viciousness, becomes even an apostate who is acquainted with the religion. 5. One uneducated in what pertains to the sacred beings is of two kinds, either good [6] and void of learning, or an evil one who is void of knowledge; the good and void of learning worships the sacred beings unobservantly with the proper rites, and the evil one who is void of knowledge thinks to worship the sacred beings unobservantly with improper rites, and has no means of trustworthy reliance upon the religion of the sacred beings and their obeisance. 6. And one well-educated in what pertains to the sacred beings, through the three words of the connected series (ham-padvandishnih) which is good (khu) and learned [7], and through what pertains to the sacred beings, expounds faithfully the object of the obeisance for the sacred beings.

7. This, too, that, by him who teaches to mankind that thing which becomes their hope of eternity, mankind are taught to come to the religion of the sacred beings; even for this reason, because the Vohumanic attainment [8] to the religion of the sacred beings is to be required wisely for them, its requirement wisely for them is a benefit for the steadfast and becomes a consideration (minih) for them, and the consideration of the benefit of the steadfast is through hope of the eternity which is provided for the benefit, on account of which the hope of eternity -- which is the basis -- is the reason even of the acceptance of the religion.

8. This, too, that the perfection of the first among the existences [9] is taught by him who has retentively remembered his words; even for this reason, because remembrance is the acme of every perfection. 9. This, too, that he becomes a nourisher of good works who shall perform good works publicly; even for this reason, because others are taught thereby, and good works increase in the world. 10. This, too, that by him who has fruit in the possession of Ohrmazd the development of the world in virtue [10] is taught; even for this reason, because a lawful preserver and a producer of liberality arise through the fruit, they enlarge the root of the power of the angel of liberality, and pluck its fruit; the world is improved thereby, and mankind are taught about it. 11. This, too, that, through complete mindfulness, words and actions [11] are truly taught by him whose ceremonial is for complete mindfulness; even for this reason, because there are both words and actions in the ceremonial.

12. This, too, that the sagacious creativeness (far'zanak dahih) of Ohrmazd is taught, which is the exposition, to Ohrmazd [12], of the production of the renovation; even for this reason, because the advantage of the sagacity of Ohrmazd is the consequence of its beginning, and its middle is through the power of the goodness and knowledge of him himself, and because it is destiny as regards the creations; and whoever possesses that power for the assistance of the renovation, is extolled for that sagacity, and people are taught thereby. 13. This, too, that the reward of Zartosht is appropriated by him who decides about duty and opinion [13]; even for this reason, because, through that discrimination, he is similar to Zartosht.

14. This, too, that the recitation of revelation is performed for mankind by him who extends the propagation of the religion [14]; even for this reason, because, owing to the gratification of virtuous practisers, virtue increases. 15. This, too, that the religion of Ohrmazd is made progressive [13] by him who shall perform the ceremonial of Ohrmazd; even for this reason, because through that performance of his occurs the blessing of the provider of the rite (niranginidar). 16. This, too, that that perfectly righteous man of just judgment is protected from the annoying spirit [15] by him who possesses the resemblance (angunagih) unto Vohuman that they behold and resources through virtue; even for this reason, because the vexation which is partaken by him (the spirit), owing to the just judgment among those of the nature (chiharikan) of mankind, is redoubled (dokani-aito) by their pleasure owing to the Vohumanic resemblance, and the annoying spirit is disabled (akari-hend) [16] by that accumulated vexation which occurs for his annoyance.

17. This, too, that the exploits of the archangels are taught by him who is really capable in what pertains to the archangels; even for this reason, because they become the hope of a consoling (vedvar) end, and are also indicative of the renovation of the universe, the hope of a virtuous end. 18. This, too, that the words of him who is Zartosht, that 'people shall become supplicant,' are taught by him who is for the benefiters; even for this reason, because they who are benefiters, on account of an inclination for the religion, make others eager for the religion, and make them mount for prayer. 19. And this, too, that by him who gives anything to a righteous man, this is also done that some one else may give even to him who is vile; even for this reason, because a foundation of liberality is thereby prepared for him [17].

20. Perfect righteousness is excellence.


NOTES:

1. See Chap. 14.1 n; it is here written tad-spag-peres in Pahlavi.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 43.1 b.

3. These appear to be the four kinds of ordinary men, and the three kinds of physicians, detailed in the following clauses.

4. Khu (Paz.) ayov dushim.

5. Apparently khaya-ch badly written in B.

6. Paz. khu.

7. Probably 'good thoughts, good words, and good deeds.'

8. See Pahl. Yas. 43.1 e.

9. Ibid. 2 b.

10. Ibid. 2 d.

11. Ibid. 6 c.

12. See Pahl. Yas. 43.8 b.

13. Ibid. 17 c.

14. Ibid. 15 d, 27 c.

15. Ibid. 11 e.

16. The Paz. equivalent of akarih-homand.

17. Implying that he is himself vile who gives to the righteous merely to induce others to give to himself.


fargard 14. Instruction to be heard, perfection of the first next-of-kin marriage, the teaching of it, daughterhood of Spandarmad, this is taught by him who is completely mindful, attraction to good works, reverence for Vohuman, ceremonial taught with complete mindfulness (60).

1. The fourteenth fargard, Ad-fravakhshya [1], is that whatever is instruction is to be listened to [2] here as much as is possible, and he who is not to be taught is allowed an opportunity for listening by Zartosht.

2. This, too, that by him who would be a causer of procreation for performers of labor, the perfect nature of the performance of the first next-of-kin marriage [3] is praised; because causing the procreation of performers of labor is the fatherhood of mankind, the proper fatherhood of mankind is through the proper production of progeny, the proper progeny of the producer is through the accomplishment of progeny among his own, according to the disposition of the first creatures, and the accomplishment of progeny among one's own is next-of-kin marriage; and that which occurs, when a causer of the procreation of performers of labor praises the fatherhood of mankind, is that next-of-kin marriage is also praised by him. 3. This, too, that by him whose creatures are in virtue, owing to his virtuous nourishment of the creatures, the performance of next-of-kin marriage [4] is taught, and the virtue is his virtue; even on this account, because, for the sake of keeping the creatures in virtue, he allows (andazedo) for the virtuous disposition pertaining to the multitude, and that which is born he produces (dahedo) as lineage from the next-of-kin marriage pertaining to the multitude.

4. This, too, that Spandarmad is in daughterhood [5] to Ohrmazd is taught by him whose wisdom is through complete mindfulness; even for this reason, because his wisdom and complete mindfulness are within limits which are Ohrmazd and Spandarmad, the wisdom being that of Ohrmazd, the complete mindfulness that of Spandarmad, and the complete mindfulness being the offspring of the wisdom just as Spandarmad is of Ohrmazd; and, owing to this, the assertion is reasonable that, by him whose complete mindfulness is connected with wisdom, it is taught that Spandarmad is in daughterhood to Ohrmazd. 5. This, too, that thus the exercise of that daughterhood is taught by him whose righteousness is through complete mindfulness, and whose ceremonial is also through complete mindfulness; that is, he shall perform the ceremonial and other good works fully mindfully.

6. This, too, that mankind are attracted to religious good deeds by him who shall provide benefit for the people through actions and words; even for this reason, because those actions are religious good deeds, and, when instituted by him, others are also taught by him. 7. This, too, that reverence for Vohuman [6] is taught by him who shall make that which is contaminated obvious to the eye, so that what is dark becomes light; even for this reason, because the display of the work of Vohuman thereby has also taught the offer of reverence for Vohuman. 8. And this, too, that the ceremonial is taught with complete mindfulness [7] only by him who teaches words and actions with complete mindfulness.

9. Perfect righteousness is excellence.


NOTES:

1. See Chap. 15.1 n; it is here written ad-fravakhshe in Pahlavi.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 44.1 a.

3. See Pahl. Yas. 44.4 a.

4. Ibid. 4 c. 2-5 have been already translated, somewhat differently, in S.B.E., vol. xviii, pp. 395, 396.

5. Ibid. 4 d. For Spandarmad see Bk. 8, Chap. 9.3.

6. See Pahl. Yas. 44.9 e.

7. Ibid. 10 a.


fargard 15. To what lands one should step, diligence in good works, teaching religion, even in an exhausted province, protection of fire, giving oneself in discipleship, he who so gives men and women, goodness taught to the good by him whose Chinwad passage teaches them to step forth; (10) the world produces abundance through complete mindfulness, the wicked man becomes unprivileged, as in the case of Arjasp, contentment of the archangels, he who thinks of Zartosht (61).

1. The fifteenth fargard, Kamnamaeza [1], is about the reply of Ohrmazd to Zartosht, as to that which was asked by him thus: 'To which lands do I step [2]? and it is thus: 'Do thou march (sagitun) there where the man, in whose person righteousness is connected with complete mindfulness, is welcome; this, too, is where happy is he from whom there is no complaint.'

2. This, too, that mankind are made diligent in good works by him who produces progress for good works; even for this reason, because mankind attain progress in manifest duty who engage more particularly in good works. 3. This, too, that the teaching of religion is the public action which is prescribed by him who would produce exertion for the righteous, that is, benefit for those of the good religion; even for this reason, because the multitude (kabedan) approach. the religion, and are taught and practice it, on account of a desire for benefit. 4. This, too, that it is in a province of even exhausted production [3] that it is taught by him who appoints a virtuous governor over the province; even for this reason, because a virtuous governor of a province becomes a teacher of ability and good works to those of the province.

5. This, too, that the good protection of fire [4] is taught by him whose words are through Vohuman, and who also would provide a time for the ordeal of that which is doubtful ; even for this reason, because he whose words are utterable through Vohuman, and who would provide a time for the ordeal of that which is doubtful, teaches the provision of care for the operative fire, owing to that which occurs when what is accomplished, about one acquitted or convicted by the fire, is declared, and mankind shall provide more particularly for the brilliancy of the fire, and the wicked more for assistance and protection from it.

6. This, too, that whoever shall provide about him who liberally gives himself in discipleship [5] unto the priests, has thereby taught even by the mention of the high-priest; even for this reason, because the person being given in discipleship unto the priests, the religion practiced by the high-priest arises also for mention, and whoever shall provide generosity for that person, has increased and also taught that action, which is religion, even by the mention made. 7. This, too, that men and women [6] are taught as being given in discipleship [7] to Zartosht by him who keeps his own males and females in the control of Zartosht. 8. This, too, that goodness is taught by him to those (valman) who are good, so that they produce it who give to that righteous one the worthiness which is through that wealth; the righteous one who is worthy is one of the good religion for whose production of the worthiness which is through that wealth it is sought, and that wealth which is coveted is wealth of little trouble and much advantage, through the goodness and idea of virtue of the giver to the account of him who is the accepter of the good worthiness. 9. This, too, that through his Chinwad passage (Chish-vidarg) it is taught that they shall step forth (frovamand) [8]; and by him who goes on through anything (chish) openly, when he has proceeded publicly on the right path, one passed away on the Chinwad passage is taught.

10. This, too, that by him whose ceremonial is through complete mindfulness it is taught that the world produces abundance through complete mindfulness [9]; even for this reason, because it is taught by him, through that disposition of his for the sacred beings (pavan zak-i valman yazdano khim), that the developed world is shown to be theirs; and here below it is fully taught by him, that Hordad and Amurdad [10] -- that is, the sacred beings -- produce it for the benefiters. 11. This, too, that thus he who is wicked, even he who is privileged, becomes unprivileged at that time when every one understands, that is, when righteousness is aloft. 12. This, too, that when he who is privileged is Vishtasp [11], likewise he who is privileged is the righteous Zartosht [12], and so he who is the wicked Arjasp [13] is unprivileged.

13. This, too, that creation is taught by him to Ohrmazd, so that he creates, and this, too, that the archangels are taught by his will, whose contentment [14] is through that of the archangels, so that he observes the conclusion in the affairs of the archangels. 14. And this, too, that wisdom is taught to him who is Zartosht -- so that it becomes his -- by him whose thoughts are for Zartosht [15] and for the religion of Zartosht.

15. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness.


NOTES:

1. See Chap. 16.1 n; it is here written kamnamezo in Pahlavi.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 45.1 a; reading val kadar damikan vamam (= gamam, see Chap. 58.4).

3. Ibid. 4 b.

4. See Pahl. Yas. 45.7 c.

5. Ibid. 9 d.

6. Ibid. 10 a.

7. Ibid. 10 b.

8. See Pahl. Yas. 45.10 e, and Bk. 8, Chap. 14.8.

9. Ibid. 12 c.

10. See Chap. 19.1.

11. See Pahl. Yas. 45.13 e.

12. Ibid. 14 a, which is supplied by Pt4, Mf4, thus: Zartoshto mun lak aharubo dosto.

13. See Bk. 8, Chap. 11.4.

14. See Pahl. Yas. 45.19 e.

15. Ibid. 19 b.


fargard 16. The wise, practicing the deeds of complete mindfulness, nourishing good works and the creatures with propriety, giving pasture, he who becomes a benefit to the good, sentence according to declaration of acquittal or conviction, a strong foundation for learning (62).

1. The sixteenth fargard, Spenta-mainyu [1], is that the religion is lodging in him who is himself wise, or becomes a hearer of the wise. 2. This, too, that the deeds of complete mindfulness are practiced [2] and taught by him who becomes himself completely mindful. 3. This, too, that whoever shall openly perform good works becomes a nourisher of good works.

4. This, too, that the spirit of fatherhood becomes lodging in him who nourishes the creatures with propriety [3]. 5. This, too, that pasture is given [4] to cattle is taught by him who shall provide care for cattle, because the giving of pasture to them with care is advantageous.

6. This, too, that all for his good who becomes a benefit to him who is good [5] -- through that which has come to him -- is every benefit which occurs to him who is good; all for his good every benefit is given to every one good by way of similarity in race, species, and nature, and every benefit is given in the way of complete giving which is possible for it.

7. This, too, that whoever shall justly inflict sentence and judgment. really according to the declaration regarding one acquitted or convicted [6], becomes praiseworthy; even for this reason, because the origin of the judgment is the ritual of the ordeal. 8. And this, too, that by him who gives to him who is wise that which is needful for him, an immense [7] and strong foundation for learning is produced, and the knowledge in the world is augmented.

9. Perfect excellence is righteousness.


NOTES:

1. See Chap. 17.1 n; it is here written spendmato in Pahlavi.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 46.2 c.

3. Ibid. 2 d.

4. Ibid. 3 c.

5. Ibid. 5 b.

6. See Pahl. Yas. 46.6 b.

7. Ibid. 6 c.


fargard 17. Maintaining the benedictions of religion, making known the Chinwad passage, causing a change from evil to good, generosity to tillers, developing the world, formation of creatures and devastation by Vohuman caused by him whose rule is for Ohrmazd, he who increases virtue in a province, he who loves Vohuman, virtuous deeds set going (63).

1. The seventeenth fargard, Yezi [1], is that whoever maintains the benedictions of the religion [2], and shall uphold its commands, has thereby made even others learn it; even for this reason, because through this it is much more possible for him to attract others to the religion; and, as to the origin and means of attraction, the attraction is this, that he himself maintains the benedictions of the religion, and the means of attraction are this, that he is an upholder of the commands of the religion.

2. This, too, that by him who shall perform the ritual of an order which is accomplished, the Chinwad passage [3] is made known; even for this reason, because those even who have accomplished what is a work of the spirit become witnesses, one about the other, as to the facts. 3. This, too, that by him who shall perform that thing whereby a change occurs from evil to good [4], even that change which is the renovation of the universe is made known, by means even of the evidence of a partial change as regards a perpetual change.

4. This, too, that by him who shall produce generosity for the tillers [5] of the world it is then developed; even for this reason, because they become more diligent in tilling the world. 5. This, too, that by him who shall produce benefit for the poor, a development [6] of the world is produced for them; even for this reason, because through that reason they increase more.

6. This, too, that the creature-forming (damih) of Ohrmazd [7] is occasioned by him whose rule [8] is for Ohrmazd; even for this reason, because he becomes a holder and attendant of good works. 7. This, too, that the devastation by Vohuman [9] is taught by him whose rule is for Ohrmazd; even for this reason, because he smites sinners and destroys among villains.

8. This, too, that virtuous people are increased in a province [10] by him who appoints a virtuous governor of the province. 9. This, too, that virtuous instruction is provided and explained by him who loves Vohuman [11]. 10. And this, too, that virtuous deeds [12] are set going by him who teaches learned sayings and virtuous deeds to him who is good; even for this reason, because the reception of the progressive supply of virtue by the learned becomes more complete.

11. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness.


NOTES:

1. See Chap. 18.1 n.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 47.1 d.

3. See Pahl. Yas. 47.2 b.

4. Ibid. 4 a.

5. Ibid. 5 d.

6. Ibid 6 c.

7. Ibid. 7 d.

8. Ibid. 8 a.

9. Ibid. 9 c.

10. Ibid. 12 a, and compare Chap. 61.4.

11. Ibid. 12 b.

13. See Pahl. Yas. 47.12 c.


fargard 18. He who makes people intelligent through his complete mindfulness, how this occurs, discriminating through wisdom, teaching joyfulness in righteousness to Frashostar, and ardor in good works, supplying guardianship, a master of all commands, Vohuman's guarding the creatures of Ohrmazd, the arrival of the wicked in the fiend's abode, (10) reverence coming to assistance through invocation, the supplicant for what is coveted from Ohrmazd; Ohrmazd's statement about one's own, confederate, and serf (64).

1. The eighteenth fargard, Ad-ma-yava [1], is that, through his complete mindfulness [2], the teaching of mankind in virtue is by him, and they become properly intelligent [2] through him, whose actions are those which are more daughterly, that is, as reverent unto Ohrmazd as a daughter unto a father; even for this reason, because his display of the complete mindfulness which is instinctive (asnik) is through action, and that action, acquired (srutik) for the thoughts of mankind, is kindled by him and has become properly intelligent. 2. This, too, that proper intelligence of things arises for one completely mindful [2], even for a daughter to a father, through that complete mindfulness which is instinctive, whereby that lust is excluded which is most violently reverenced by the male (kushno), and, devoid of that, the reverence is assimilated (angunihinido) most strongly to one's reverence unto the creator.

3. This, too, that discrimination of the affairs of the sacred beings through wisdom [3] is taught by him whose learning is in the affairs of the sacred beings; even for this reason, because discrimination of the affairs of the sacred beings is specially that which is advantageous in the end, and the advantageousness in the end is seen through learning; and, apart from that, he who is learned in the affairs of the sacred beings has taught discrimination of the affairs of the sacred beings through his wisdom [4].

4. This, too, that the joyfulness in righteousness is taught to Frashostar by him -- that is, he would make him ardent in thhe performance of duty, and good works [5] -- who has thoroughly expounded Hordad and Amurdad to Frashostar [6] that is, he maintains him as his high-priest. 5. This, too, that he who shall perform good works ever afresh, has taught him to become ardent in duty and good works [5]. 6. This, too, that Ohrmazd supplies guardianship [7] to him who gives pleasure to Ohrmazd; even for this reason, because a giver of pleasure to Ohrmazd is any one who is a true servant of Ohrmazd, and Ohrmazd becomes the guardian of a true servant.

7. This, too, that they ever amount to a master of all commands [8] for him who is a benefit and sovereignty for that which arises; even owing to this reason, because, in establishing and arranging that which is an absurd (ashkun) or a virtuous law, the command issued, which is another and further observation of the advantage of the creatures, prepares that which is ever an attainable benefit among the creatures, by means of which, even after symptoms of the life of one's body, it is governed through setting going. the usage of that law, and is connected with his mastery of command and his sovereignty. 8. This, too, that Vohuman's having guarded the creature-forming (damih) of Ohrmazd [9] is taught by him whose rule is for Ohrmazd; on this account, because he whose rule is for Ohrmazd has taught the inclination for (padisai) being guarded, on this account, because the inclination of the creatures of that ruler for being guarded by the power of goodness, and the creatures being guarded by the power of goodness have published the power of goodness, which is Vohuman, to the multitude.

9. Here is about the reply to Zartosht concerning the wicked, thus: 'Upon arrival in the fiend's abode [10], through an immature (kham) death, they are unprivileged, so that every misery is theirs, and it is not possible for them to seek a remedy.'

10. This, too, that the spirit of reverence comes through invocation to the assistance [11] of him who is reverent unto the benefiters; even for this reason, because the spirits respond more particularly to that invoker who becomes their worshipper preponderantly (vaspuharakaniha); and for each one of the spirits there is preponderantly a form of worship, as the spirit of liberality is more particularly worshipped through helpfulness (vijidar-dahishnih), the spirit of truth through exact truth (hu-rastih), the spirit of a promise through true promising (hu-mitroih), and the spirit of sovereignty through good sovereignty; and, even so, the worship of the spirit of reverence consists preponderantly in reverence unto the benefiters. 11. This, too, that he whose rule is for Ohrmazd becomes a supplicant for that which is coveted (ishto) from Ohrmazd [12]; even for this reason, because what is wisely begged from the sacred beings and rulers, for rendering one's own self worthy, occurs as a benefit owing to the sacred beings and rulers.

12. About the reply of Ohrmazd to Zartosht, when asked by him about his own, his confederate [13], and his serf, thus: 'He is thine own, he thy confederate, and he thy serf, even when and where he is a righteous offspring who produces the progress of this thy religion of Mazda-worship, and recites it openly even unto him he knows, who provides the public benedictions, this good practice of thine, that is, he maintains what is provided by thee as benedictions [14].'

13. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness.


NOTES:

1. See Chap. 19.1 n; it is here written ad-ma-yuv in Pahlavi.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 48.5 c.

3. Ibid. 6 b.

4. Assuming that ar'jo, 'value,' stands for khirado, which is very similarly written in Pahlavi letters.

5. See Pahl. Yas. 48.8 a.

6. See Chap. 19.1, and Bk. 8, Chap. 38.68.

7. See Pahl. Yas. 48.8 b

8. Ibid. 8 d.

9. See Pahl. Yas. 48.10 a, b, and Chap. 63.6.

10. Ibid. 11 d.

11. Ibid. 12 a.

12. See Pahl. Yas. 48.12 d.

13. Ibid. 7 c.

14. Ibid. 7 d.


fargard 19. Sheep-nature, mankind nourished, he who produces joyfulness and provides the ceremonial, displaying wisdom, instructing the tongue, teaching preparation and the virtuous way; (10) obeisance for the archangels, taking assistance, within the day till dawn made as a signal, complete mindfulness among the existences (65).

1. The nineteenth fargard, Kad-moi-urva [1], is that the sheep-nature (pahih) [2] is taught to him who is a sheep (gospend), even for this reason, because the sheep is still among sheep (pah-ich den). 2. This, too, that by him who provides pasture for sheep, mankind are nourished (srayinido) [3] through the sheep; even for this reason, because the nourishment of mankind is through the sheep, and that of the sheep through pasture. 3. This, too, that the sheep of the present worldly state is expounded to him who is a sheep (pah) to Zartosht, that is, he has Zartosht as a high-priest; even for this reason, because still a sheep (pah-ich) is a sheep.

4. This, too, that strength in virtue is increased and taught by him who produces joyfulness [4] through seeking gradual development, so that he would do that thing which gives him joyfulness, that is, he would do that thing which becomes his long-continued joy; even for this reason, because increase of strength arises more particularly from pleasure, the pleasure that one is gradually attaining (der-padai). 5. This, too, that by him who shall provide the ceremonial of the sacred beings, the joyfulness [4] owing to the sacred beings is then connected with his own; even for this reason, because the coming of the sacred beings to it occurs.

6. This, too, that the wisdom [5] of Zartosht is taught and displayed by him who gives thought to the religion of Zartosht. 7. This, too, that the tongue [5] is instructed (farhanjinido) in speech by him who becomes discriminating through wisdom. 8. And this, too, that preparation [6] is taught to them who are benefiters of Zartosht, or who are so of the religion; even for this reason, because, owing to that action, disposition, and attraction which are now theirs, they prepare mankind for the religion of Zartosht. 9. This, too, that whoever teaches the virtuous way to others, they become his through the knowledge of being instructed; even for this reason, because through the enlightenment of that way, they see and act, and are thereby instructed.

10. This, too, that the obeisance [7] for the archangels is performed by him who is a praiser of the archangels. 11. This, too, that assistance is taken [8] from the sacred beings by him who gives to him who is a supplicant that which is dear to him, because he himself is made worthy by his assistance, and, when made worthy by it, it is then taken by him; and the supplicant is he who is not a supplicant through his mouth, but through worthiness, and what is dear is that which is good about him.

12. This, too, that its being within the day till dawn (val aush) [9] is taught by him -- that is, he would make it as a signal (dakhshako) [9] -- who is in obeisance, so that he may not neglect till another day the duty and good works which it is requisite for him to perform within the day; even for this reason, because to cause the preservation of the dawn from debased incompatibility (her hanbeshih) of duties, it is made exalted by him over the duties. 13. This, too, that complete mindfulness is taught among the existences [10] by him whose thought among the existences is that he shall perform that thing which is possible to remain good in the world, such as the provision of good sovereignty, orthodoxy, the law of virtuous usage, and others, through which the dwelling, preparation, and living of mankind in the world arise, and the appropriation of any complete mindfulness of that performer is the exaltation which is his owing to that great performance.

14. It is righteousness that is perfect excellence.


NOTES:

1. See Chap. 20.1 n; it is here written kad-mok-ravo in Pahlavi.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 49.1 b. The distinction made in the Pahlavi text, here and in 3, by using the scriptural term pah and the general word gospend for the sheep, might perhaps be imitated in English by using the word 'flock' for pah, but this would not express the meaning exactly.

3. See Pahl. Yas. 49.1 b.

4. Ibid. 5 b.

5. Ibid. 6 c.

6. Ibid. 6 d.

7. See Pahl. Yas. 49.7 b.

8. Ibid. 7 d.

9. Ibid. 10 c.

10. Ibid. 11 c.


fargard 20. Ohrmazd's command about smiting the deceiver and giving sovereignty to him who is good, providing complete mindfulness, the coveted thing expedient for sovereignty to give away, words of Vohuman, innocence from discontinued good works, causing goodness, way of righteousness not concealed, repletion unnecessary for cattle, housewifery, loving religion through knowledge, gratification of Ohrmazd (66).

1. In the twentieth fargard, Vohu-khshathrem [1], it is also stated by Ohrmazd to Zartosht the Spitaman thus: 'They who are now in sovereignty are privileged, the human being who is a wicked lying tyrant being not now in sovereignty; moreover, thou shouldst cause some one to thoroughly smite (bara vanin-ae) him who is causing deception in the embodied world by lamentation (shivan), and they cause the preservation of death, ruin, and falsehood because they would cause the preservation of his effects (mamanash var ae bojinend).' 2. And this, too, namely: 'When the sovereignty should be given by them unto him who is good 2, they would be preserved through that sovereignty of his; moreover, thou shouldst cause some one to thoroughly smite him who is made deceitful by lamentation, and so also death, ruin, and falsehood.'

3. This, too, that by him who shall provide complete mindfulness [3] for his own, righteousness is. produced; even for this reason, because, through complete mindfulness, the discerning eye of life, which is righteousness, is enlightened. 4. This, too, that the coveted thing (ishto) which it is expedient for sovereignty to give away [4] is taught by him who shall provide sovereignty for him who is all-progressive (hamak-rubishno); even for this reason, because the observation, consideration, and action of him who is an all-progressive ruler are about that which is coveted by the multitude and is an ad-vantage for the sovereignty which it is expedient to produce.

5. This, too, that what is produced by the words of Vohuman [5] is taught by him who shall perform the ceremonial of the sacred beings with the thoughts of Vohuman; even for this reason, because, the mind being with the thoughts of Vohuman, the tongues of the faithful are habituated (khukinidako) in the statements of Vohuman. 6. This, too, that innocence from discontinued (amand) good works is taught by him who remains in virtue; even for this reason, because they are atoned for by him even among important good works.

7. This, too, that the original causer of goodness is assisted in causing goodness by him whose fundamental gift (bun dahishno) among the existences is that he supplies that which it is requisite for him to give; even for this reason, because in a work, upon which one remains with a thousand men, when one man is bringing his own strength to the labor therein, the 999 other men are assisted by him in that work.

8. This, too, that the way of righteousness [6] is not concealed, but taught, by him who is a good consider as to righteousness; even for this reason, because the sap and root of his righteousness are owing to undiverted thought. 9. This, too, that its being unnecessary to provide repletion for those who are cattle [7] is taught by him who keeps cattle as a controller for benefiters; even for this reason, because they teach and command him.

10. This, too, that housewifery [8] being performed is taught by that wife who shall joyfully pay reverence to her husband; even for this reason, because her housewifery is for the satisfaction of the husband, the satisfaction is through her reverence, and the reverence arises through joy. 11. This, too, that to love the religion through knowledge [9] is taught by him who is peaceful (padmanik) and Vohumanic to it; even for this reason, because Vohumanic peacefulness is understood as religion. 12. And this, too, that the gratification of Ohrmazd [10] is caused by him who teaches for Ohrmazd.

13. It is righteousness that is perfect excellence.


NOTES:

1. See Chap. 21.1 n; it is here written vohu-khshatar in Pahlavi.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 50.1 a.

3. Ibid. 2 b.

4. See Pahl. Yas. 50.2 b.

5. Ibid. 3b.

6. Ibid. 13 c.

7. See Pahl. Yas. 50.14 b.

8. Ibid. 17 c.

9. Ibid. 18 b.

10. Ibid. 20 c.


fargard 21. Performing the ceremonial, spirits lodging in the body, teaching the religion, diligence in good works, loving the beneficial way, giving a daughter in daughterhood, authority of Vohuman, a daughter given to a father for womanly service, reverence of a wife for her husband, producing origin and effect, dominion in the house (67).

1. In the twenty-first fargard, Vahishtoishti [1], it is proclaimed by the righteous Zartosht, that the ceremonial is performed by him owing to whom our worship is good thinking. 2. This, too, that Vohuman and the liturgy are lodging in the body of him in whose body the religion is lodging; and so is the spirit of goodness, which is peace (padman). 3. This, too, that the good religion is taught in word and deed by him who shall achieve the giving of thought (minishn-dahih) to Vohuman in the ceremonial. 4. This, too, that the archangels become lodging in the body of him who loves Vohuman; even for this reason, because their lodging is in light, purity, and perfume, and the body is illuminated, purified, and perfumed by Vohuman.

5. This, too, that mankind are made diligent in the performance of good works by him who shall provide gifts for the doers of good works. 6. This, too, that by him who loves the beneficial way [2], even others are put in the same way and taught. 7. This, too, that he gives his daughter in daughterhood to his fatherhood [3], who teaches to the daughter reverence towards her father; even for this reason, because she is made steadfast in daughterhood by him. 8. This, too, that the authority of Vohuman is taught by him who keeps the talent which is his for virtue; even for this reason, because from the authority of goodness arise the advantage and freedom from strife of the sciences (hunarano).

9. This, too, that a daughter is given to a father for womanly service (neshmanih [3]), and so also a wife to another man, by him who teaches reverence, towards and husband, to the daughter and the other woman; and so, too, by him who instructs the wife of a man in housewifery; because the advantageous womanly service of a woman for a man arises through reverence towards her husband and good training in housewifery. 10. This, too, that even the reverence of a wife towards a husband is produced by him who gives a woman unto a man; because the giver of possession (khudih) becomes praiseworthy even by the act of having given that possession.

11. This, too, that origin and effect (bun va-bar) are produced for Ohrmazd by him who gives what is necessary unto Ohrmazd and teaches perpetual preservation; what is properly necessary being the origin of the preservation which is the effect of what is properly necessary. 12. This, too, that dominion is acquired for the house of him who keeps the door of the house an opening for the wise; the house being the body, and the door of the house being the ear, eye, and mouth.

13. It is the excellence of righteousness that is perfect.


NOTES:

1. See Chap. 22.1 n.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 52.2 d.

3. Ibid. 4 a. In 9 (as in Chap. 45.4) there appears to be no confinement of the meaning to matrimony.


fargard 22. Giving delight to him who is a right-living poor man (68).

1. The beginning of the twenty-second fargard, the Airyaman [1], is the last question (frashno) beyond the five Gathas; it is taught for the dominion of Ohrmazd only by him -- that is, it is making him ruler of himself-who shall do that which is declared by the passage: -- Ya erezejyoi dahi drigaove vahyo [2]: who gives delights (vayagano) to him who is a right-living poor man [3] -- preservation from the destroyer, andd the consummation of every happiness.

2. It is perfect excellence that is righteousness.


NOTES:

1. See Chap. 23.1 n; it is here written airemano in Pahlavi.

2. See Yas. 53.9 d.

3. See Pahl. Yas. 52.9 d, and Chaps. 45.10, 47.17.


Stud-Yasn Nask

A selection from the whole Yasht referring to the developer: containing many unidentified statements by Ohrmazd, Zartosht, Soshyant, Vohuman, and Spandarmad; and concluding with a long series of short quotations, from the Pahlavi Gathas, concerning what every one shall do, or know, in the future existence (69).

1. About a selection from the whole Yasht [1] referring to the developer (vakhshinidar-homond).

2. Those are beneficial who increase for the developer, that is, they shall occasion benefit (nevakih) for him who would occasion that benefit which is for others [2]. 3. Thus the righteous man who produces perfect thought is he who comes upon it through Vohuman [3], and the benefit of him who is an open annoyer [4] -- the righteous man who is a smiter of the wicked, and who develops as to what is Ohrmazd's and as to what is Zartosht's -- is that he slays in moderation.

4. Regarding him who is an oppressive man who is righteous, the reply spoken is thus: 'The reward of the smiter and developer -- that man of whom one knows the smiting and developing -- is the very evil reward of him who is wicked; just as his smiting, as an evil reward for him from those two spirits, is that very evil practice loved by him who is wicked; even for this reason every righteous individual is Gathic [5], because, when privileged (padokhshai), he who is wicked is thus he who is righteous, and also he who is privileged is unprivileged [6].'

5. Zartosht proceeded with the smiting at the wicked, and as to that proceeding Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'Thou shouldst thus proceed with smiting at the wicked by ordinance (dadistan), because thus they have thee and the righteous of every kind as ruler. 6. Also through my decree (pavan-ich man vijir) one produces the ritual of ordeal, which realizes that which is real, so that one may make that which is dark fully light. 7. Thine, too, is so much the sovereignty of Ohrmazd, tkws through worship, that it's requisite (khvastako) privilege is thus maintained through virtue, because thou, who art thus, art more unconfined (anakoshidar) to the world through the furtherance and development of righteousness; great, indeed, is he who trusts the righteous man for righteousness, and great is he who trusts the wicked man for wickedness.'

8. As to that utterance (farmayishno) Zartosht spoke thus: 'An open annoyer is the righteous man -- the benefiter disclosed by Ohrmazd -- that loves the embodied world of righteousness, and demands its reverence (tarsakayih) for the proportion of righteousness therein, that is, he knows the proportion of duty and good works.' 9. Regarding the worldly existence, the reply spoken is thus: That which is again contaminated (gumikhted) by the demons becomes abundant so long as that which is proper is again contaminated with the demons; and, so long as there is a developer, they subsist for their own substances, so that it is possible for them to seek benefit for their own, and they are smiters of the righteous.'

10. Regarding him who is a wise smiter, Soshyant [7] spoke in reply thus: 'It arises through his way when it is again contaminated.'

11. As to that mischief (drujishno) Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'Happy is he from whom there is no mischief.' 12. Regarding [8] him who has come, the Yim of splendor [[Jamshed]] [9], he spoke thus: 'He attains his reward who is no smiter and no developer, not privileged and not unprivileged.'

13. As to that disclosure (hachishno) Vohuman [10] spoke thus: 'I aggrandize that spiritual lord and that priestly master who is my righteousness in person.'

14. As to that utterance Spandarmad [10] spoke thus: 'So do thou perfect (bara vadidun) him whose information subsists -- a man that becomes wise -- who is as an emblem of my religion; because he has worshipped that which is ours, so that he has retained property in our possession, through whose words there is a furtherance of the world of righteousness. 15. That is my arrangement, and that my wish that is, what is necessary for me -- and I love that which thou fully understandest, that is, that arrangement which is righteousness; also whatever discourse and perfect performance, thou askest of us, O Zartosht! in complete mindfulness, I now practice by the work of each hand; observe thoroughly that which I am performing, and thou, too, art accomplishing. 16. In worship thou, O Zartosht! art liberal, who art liberal in ceremonial; for thee, whose body believes, controversy is not lavish (rad) for the sake of the wealth bestowed; the reward of Zartosht the developer is for developing, the reward of Zartosht the smiter is for smiting, and the reward of Zartosht the smiter and developer is for smiting and developing. 17. At the bridge judgment of him whose name the fire calls for participation, as when they repeatedly pour the melted ore upon him in the throat, thou shouldst pray near him alive -- him whose love is for virtue -- so that he may perform duty and good works with fearlessness; with his desire, too, it is expedient to know that it is done by him on account of necessity.'

18. As to that utterance Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'Such is the upward attraction (lala-hanjishnih) of Shahrewar [11] for him who is ours.' 19. As to that question (frashno) Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'Such has happened to him who is ours through Vohuman; he ought to come to our religion through virtue. 20. Truly he, O Zartosht! is privileged for the sovereignty, who confines his ears to this religion. that he may make it fully progressive; who is given immortality through this, and kind regard for the will of him who is the best of that religion of mine, O Zartosht! and who assists the furtherance of this world of mine in righteousness.'

21. As to those of that other one [12] Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'As regards that which is great evidence, when wicked they consider it as unattested for him who is wicked himself; and the thoughts [13] of him, whose deeds are those of that other one, are due to Akoman [14]. 22. Owing also to this, when both Hordad and Amurdad [15] are given to thee, it is in that way -- when thou art of the propitious spirit and the best thought -- that what thou understandest thou shouldst be accomplishing, and what thou dost not understand thou askest again.'

23. Of him whose wisdom exists (aito) -- of Ohrmazd -- he whose wisdom arises (yehevuned) -- Zartosht -- inquired concerning him whoo is unreal (an-aito) and who does not subsist (yehevuned) hereafter, who has thus never become a material existence for those on the side of virtue, and does not subsist for them henceforth.

24. As to that reverse description (padirako nisanishnih) Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'Among men of every kind say unto the righteous who are smiting the wicked, that we improve the measure of any milk they propitiate, even by the holy-water which is the sustenance (barishno) of milk, in order to cause much happiness of life.'

25. As to that utterance Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'Happy is he from whom there is no complaint, and a life which is like this the text Gerezoi ... akhso ... [16] implores. 26. To thee, O Zartosht! my protection is given in the reply of the Kem-na [17] which, before the companionship of Kay Vishtasp [18] -- that righteous friend of mine [19] -- was a published thing of those which are used, and of those such as it is requisite to use. 27.. The talk of a man which is immoderate is false, everything immoderate is so for this reason, everything is not that which the good man possesses, because, when privileged, the wicked one is he who is righteous, and he who is privileged becomes unprivileged; he who is righteous is thus he who is wicked, and becomes him who is privileged and unprivileged, so that he is fully incriminated, and they shall carry off his possessions.'

28. Regarding the benefiters the reply spoken is thus: 'They are owing to the reward of the smiter and developer; those are beneficial whose smiting and developing are those of the developer Ohrmazd, who understands smiting and development.'

29. When through smiting by Ohrmazd, on account of the wicked, a question (frashno) about it arose, the reply spoken, as to the smiting of the present world by means of him who is ruler, was: 'The reward which the judgment that is perfect teaches is thus, that he who is the smiter and developer, Soshyant [20], shall make the decision.' 30. Zartosht spoke in reply thus: 'He gives a reward.' 31. And that wise smiter, Soshyant, spoke in reply thus: ' He shall inflict punishment.'

32. Even he who is an ox of many cattle has openly and publicly wailed this complaint [21] on account of the righteous one: 'How long is it till the time when a developer arises, even he who is an irresolute ruler (akamako khudai)? How long is the time till he arises, until the wicked one who is a smiter and privileged corrupter is he who is unprivileged?' 33. Because, for the sake of producing resolution (kamak-dahih), he complains that, until the developer shall arise, even he who is irresolute is ruler, that is, until he who is the developer shall become privileged.

34. As to that complaint of his Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'Not so as by this complaint is the obtainment of spiritual lordship (ahuikih), for this reason, when they do not consider the ruler as a ruler, and there is no giving of priestly authority (radoih) by any righteousness whatever [22], it is requisite, on account of the many righteous, to speak henceforth, until the time when the developer arises, even of him who is an irresolute ruler.'

35. On account of the many statements of the spirits, even as to thought, word, and deed, it is requisite to say that they shall always render an account until even some obtainment of a smiter and developer, privileged or unprivileged. 36. Some arise of whom it is requisite to ask this question (frashno) [23] while he who is righteous and he who is wicked are two witnesses, and they make the righteous one manifest by his evidence, or they molest him who is righteous by smiting. 37. Some arise when it is requisite to speak this reply [24] during the smiting of the maintainer of strife and of the kinsman. 38. And some arise while that individual [25] is loved, though a righteous one and a developer arise, and it is requisite to produce a provider of benefit on account of the many, both wicked and righteous, so long as a wicked one of the smiting which is maintaining strife is privileged.

39. Because, regarding the production of resolution, it is proclaimed that it is so that they shall fully understand that Ohrmazd discriminates truly, and Ahriman does not discriminate truly. 40. And that it is so that they shall fully understand that the punishment of the wicked is for teaching them that they will attain to the existence of darkness, that even to him who belongs to the ever-stationary they may give his reward, that they are for smiting the wicked one, that they are very powerful to give, that they should kill the apostate, that one has to be converted from vileness to goodness, that he who would be wicked is made to believe by the tongue, that for the sake of proper nurture of the creatures next-of-kin marriage is provided, that the demons are despised, that thus he who is evil-ruling is wicked, and that they are approaching the place where Ohrmazd shall provide for the account of sin and good works.

41. They shall become more diligent in the performance of duty and good works, and abstain more from sin, always until one attains even to some acquirement for those in life and those in a lifeless state [26]. 42. And they shall not inflict their punishment completely in the embodied state, and the fiend does not pity the worldly existence; every individual is counted up, and everyone is fully completed for the affairs of Ohrmazd, but the fiend is not smitten, and they shall not fully inflict the punishment.

43. No one thinks thou shouldst remain for the propitious Ohrmazd, and no one completely presents himself; they attack through the fiend, and arise for the foolish one 44. No one arises for the goodness of him who is good, but for the vileness of the fiend they destroy what is good, and do not understand evil and good; they recite the revelation for a wicked one, they do not bestow friendship for labor, but are for the evildoer.

45. And the righteous one, who is the best of spiritual and worldly existences, becomes a privileged developer, even he who is an irresolute ruler [27]; and so he who is wicked, even he who is privileged, becomes unprivileged, at that time when one gives the soul of every one unto the supreme heaven [28] [[Garothman]], and when thou shouldst, everyone, know that the affliction of the annoyers arises [29], so that when, owing thereto, they beseech the sacred beings, it is only hell that they supply.

46. When everyone shall provide the ceremonial of the archangels unworriedly, and when everyone knows that Goshorun complained [30] -- so that he who is the fashioner of cattle inquired thus: 'Whose is the guardianship of cattle [31]?' and 'Not without annoyance' was the reply of Ardwahisht, 'that is, they shall inflict his punishment [32]' -- everyone also knows that in their light is joyfulness for the sight [33].

47. When every individual (kola aish-1) becomes aware of the priestly authority of Ohrmazd; and when every individual knows that his remedy for the devastation owing to the evil spirit is comprehensibly stated [34]; when every individual knows that Ohrmazd fashioned the propitiousness in the liturgy [35]; and when everyone knows that the priest is perfect, that Ohrmazd enhances both of them in spirituality [36], that Vohuman is the offspring of Ohrmazd [37], that Spandarmad is Ohrmazd's own [38], that all three of them are the life of him who has wandered forth [39] -- that is, life is given by the thought and wisdom [40] which are his own -- and that the sacred beings are they who are supporting it.

48. When every one of this existence must act for the sake of that other existence, and knows how to act; when every one is a friend, through deeds, of the spirit which is his own [41]; and when every one becomes a person supporting Ohrmazd [42]. 49. When every individual knows that they give no reward to him in whose body a demon is lodging who is not listening [43]; when every one shall make his own soul immortal [44]; and when every one has advantage through possession of Ohrmazd [45].

50. When everyone becomes a Zoti unsullied in righteousness [46]; when everyone gives a sacred cake to the archangels [47]; when every one knows that cooperation is due to him who is their servant; and when they are together in soul [48]. 51. When every individual gives his body [49]; when every one proceeds to their ceremonial and glorification [50]; when every individual knows that 'other than they' is meant by naechim tem anyem [51]; and when every one knows that, through that sovereignty of his, the renovation of the universe is produced by his will among the existences [52].

52. When every one knows the elucidation (ro-shano) of the religion; when every one considers the religion as governor and serf [53]; when every one knows that the manifestation of this ought to arise in him; when every one thinks Ohrmazd auspicious [54]; and when every one knows that, when it occurs, benefit is produced, through resolute sovereignty [55], where and when it gives him a reward for the performance of the duty and good works they should call for. 53. When every one gives [56] the sacred beings and the good a sheep; when every one knows that, for him whose righteousness is in action, immense and complete mindfulness arises [57]; when every one thinks of much assistance from Ohrmazd [58]; when every one speaks to restore his temper [59]; when every one speaks to provide the ceremonial [60]; and when every one produces that advantage by liberal giving [61]. 54 When every one knows that one grants him the obeisance which is due to him when in a condition for the supreme heaven [[Garothman]] (amat den garodmanikih) [62]; when every one knows that it is done by those in the realm of Ohrmazd [63]; and when every individual knows that, so long as the religion of the first creation [64] shall exist (ae), this characteristic is to be considered thus: Hvo zi dregvau, &c. [65]

55. When every individual keeps no wealth for a high-priest of the apostates [66]; when every one knows that, when above, there is righteousness [67]; when they shall make intercession [68] for every individual, and when every individual becomes aware [69] of it; when every individual sees that he is a father of righteousness [70]; and when every individual knows that the propitious spirit is in him [71]. 56. When every one knows that, when a supplicant, he is more a smiter of the wicked [72]; when every individual utters the salutation (Niyayeshno) of Ohrmazd [73]; when every individual knows that that is our comfort [74], and that it is Ohrmazd's own creature [75]; and when every individual is taught [76] and every individual joins in the perfect religion [77].

57. When every individual knows that Vohuman guards the creatures [78]; when every individual becomes privileged by will [79] for the reward; when every individual knows that gain is through giving away [80]; when every individual transacts, or shall transact, the affairs of the archangels [81]; and when every individual knows that when he who is intelligent speaks to him [82], it becomes a possession for the benefit of righteousness [83].

58. When, for equal meritoriousness, it is necessary to give sooner to Magian men [84] -- so that on account even of the Magianship of Kay Vishtasp he was suitable for the sovereignty [85], that Zartosht was given a wife by Frashostar [86], that it was the learned Jamasp [87] that Ohrmazd gave -- and that every individual shall provide the ceremonial of Ohrmazd [88]. 59. And when every individual knows that they are the best prayers which are the words of Zartosht [89], and, even so, his is a wise reward for those which are yours [90].

60. It is perfect is the excellence of righteousness; it is perfect excellence that is righteousness.


NOTES:

1. The twenty-first Nask, or original Yasna (see Bk. 8, Chap. 46.1). It is not very clear, from this chapter and from what is stated about it in Chap. 1.2, whether this selection was compiled by the author of the Denkard, or by some earlier writer. So far as its statements have yet been traced, nearly all of them originate in the Gathas, or in the Yasna Haptanghaiti; but 45 quotes a passage from the Bag Nask (Yas. 19).

2. Compare Pahl. Yas. 42.1 a.

3. Compare Pahl. Yas. 28.2 a, where J2, Pt4, Mf4 have bara yehamtunane pavan Vohuman.

4. Compare Pahl. Yas. 42.8 b.

5. Bk. 8, Chap. 1.5 n.

6. See Chap. 61.11.

7. See Bk. 8, Chap. 14.14.

8. Assuming that la, 'not,' stands for rai.

9. Av. Yima Khshaeto (see Bk. 8, Chap. 13.6, 7).

10. See Bk. 8, 9.3.

11. See Chap. 43.1. It is here written Shatrover.

12. The followers of Ahriman.

13. Assuming that manishno, 'dwelling,' stands for minishno.

14. See Bk. 8, Chap. 9.3 n.

15. See Chap. 19.1.

16. Yas. 46.2 c-e; its Pahlavi version (Pahl. Yas. 45.2 c-e) may be translated as follows: 'I complain to thee, behold it and this one, O Ohrmazd! (that is, seek a remedy for me); that pleasure is my desire, which a friend gives to his friend; through the instruction of Vohuman (when I am instructed in virtue) is the coveted thing of righteousness (thou shouldst give me).' The words in parentheses have no equivalents in the Avesta text.

17. Yas. 46.7; its Pahlavi version (Pahl. Yas. 45.7 a-e) may be translated as follows: 'Who is given to me (and mine, my disciples) as protector by thee, O Ohrmazd when that wicked (Ahriman) retains malice for me in possession (that is; maintains malice with me? Who shall provide me protection), other than thy fire and Vohuman? (Because I know that they would provide me protection for your sake) when I nourish righteousness through deeds for them, O Ohrmazd! (that is, should I perform duty and good works, who shall provide me protection?) Thou shouldst proclaim to me that high-priest of the religion; (this thou shouldst state thus: "Maintain the religion as high-priest").'

18. See Pahl. Yas. 45.13 e, and Bk. 8, Chaps. 11.1, 13.15.

19. Compare Ibid. 14 a which is given in Pt4, Mf4, as follows: Zaratushto mun lak aharubo dosto.

20. See 10.

21. Compare Pahl. Yas. 29.1, 9.

22. See Pahl. Yas. 29.6 b.

23. That in 32.

24. That in 34.

25. The irresolute ruler.

26. By accumulating more good works than are necessary to balance one's own sins.

27. See Pahl. Yas. 19.58, 20.10.

28. See Pahl. Yas. 28.4 a.

29. Ibid. 6 c.

30. See Pahl. Yas. 29.1 a, and Chap. 15.3.

31. Ibid. 2 a.

32. Ibid. 3 a, and Bk. 8, Chap. 37.14.

33. See Pahl. Yas. 30.1 c.

34. See Pahl. Yas. 29.6 a.

35. Ibid. 7 a.

36. See Pahl. Yas. 31.7 c.

37. Ibid. 8 a.

38. Ibid. 9 a.

39. See Pahl. Yas. 31.10 a.

40. Ibid. 11 b, c.

41. Ibid. 21 c.

42. Ibid. 22 c.

43. Compare Pahl. Yas. 33.4 a, 43.13 c.

44. See Pahl. Yas. 34.1a.

45. Ibid. 3 a.

46. See Pahl. Yas. 33.6 a, and Bk. 8, Chap. 7.5.

47. Ibid. 8 c.

48. Ibid. 9 c.

49. Ibid. 10 c.

50. See Pahl. Yas. 34.6 c.

51. Yas. 34.7 c, the Pahlavi version of which may be translated as follows: 'I am aware of no one (above), other than you (that is, I know no one from whom my benefit is such as from you, and when they shall cause) righteousness (that is, they shall perform duty and good works, it) thus produces shelter for us.' The MS. has naechid.

52. See Pahl. Yas. 34.15 c.

53. See Pahl. Yas. 35.22.

54. See Pahl. Yas. 42.7 a.

55. Ibid. 8 d.

56. Assuming that yehevuned, 'becomes,' stands for yehabuned.

57. See Pahl. Yas. 43.6 c.

58. Ibid. 7 d.

59. See Pahl. Yas. 44.3 a.

60. Ibid. 6 a.

61. Ibid. 7 a.

62. Ibid. 8 e.

63. Ibid. 9 c.

64. See Pahl. Yas. 45.6 e.

65. Yas. 46.6 c-e; its Pahlavi version (Pahl. Yas. 45.6 c-e) may be translated as follows: 'For he is wicked whose best nature is for the wicked, and he is righteous whose homage (franamishno in Pt4, Mf4) is for the righteous (in any doubtfulness, whoever gives anything to the wicked is to be considered as wicked, and whoever gives to the righteous is to be considered as righteous) so long as the religion of the first creation, O Ohrmazd! (until the time when Soshyant arrives one is ever to be considered in this way).'

66. See Pahl. Yas. 45.8 a. The MS. has 'the righteous' by mistake.

67. Ibid. 12 a.

68. Compare Pahl. Yas. 48.6 a.

69. Compare Pahl. Yas. 45.17 e.

70. See Pahl. Yas. 46.2 d.

71. Ibid. 3 a.

72. Ibid. 4 d.

73. See Pahl. Yas. 47.1 d.

74. Ibid. 6 a.

75. Ibid. 7 d.

76. Ibid. 12 c.

77. See Pahl. Yas. 48.9 c.

78. See Pahl. Yas. 48.10 a, b.

79. See Pahl. Yas. 49.9 c.

80. See Pahl. Yas. 50.1 b. The MS. has bun, instead of bara, by mistake.

81. Ibid. 3 c.

82. Ibid. 8 a.

83. Ibid. 8 b.

84. Ibid. 15 a.

85. Ibid 16 a, and Bk. 8, Chap. 11.1.

86. Ibid. 17 a, and Bk. 8, Chap. 38.68.

87. Ibid. 18 a.

88. Ibid. 20 c.

89. See Pahl. Yas. 52.1 a.

90. Ibid. 7 a.

THE END