HISTORY OF THE PERSIAN EMPIRE
by E. W. West, from Sacred Books of the East, Oxford University Press,
1. Of the Warsht-mansr 
there are twenty-three fargards, and the first is the Aethrapaitish ,
on the asking of Zartosht, by Maidok-mah , about the nature of the birth of Zartosht,
and his coming to the religion.
2. And the reply of Zartosht
about the combative coming together of the life-causing and death-causing
spirits at his birth . 3. This, too, that when the fellow-villagers  of
her who bore him saw his head  they considered it the
shoulder of  Arduisur  and his chest and back those of Ashishwangh
, and when they saw his full  bosom they considered it
that of the spirit of liberality ; and by his side was the
Kayanian glory  to rub (mushtano) his bosom.
4.. The speaking of Zartosht
spiritually, on the grievous bringing forth of his head , thus: 'As a
spiritual lord is my desire, do thou who art the Zoti speak forth to me
;' and the reply from Ohrmazd thus: 'So shouldst thou be the priestly master
as regards whatever righteousness I speak forth with righteous intelligence;
thou art of very much value, thou art very righteous, thou art
most intelligent, and thou wilt state the religion of the
Mazda-worshippers to creatures of every kind.' 5. Through that saying an arrow
reaches spiritually unto the demons, just as from a mighty chief warrior of Kay
Vishtasp , like him in a mountain dwelling (garano man) who has shot
an arrow for an attack (patkopishno) opposing those in coats of mail. 6. The
evil spirit grumbled (dandido) to the demons thus: 'Evil has it become for
you who are demons, but you are unobservant.' 7. Even so Zartosht
proclaimed life free from the control of the demons, when this same saying
was uttered by him, thus: 'As a spiritual lord is my desire;' and, at
the falling of the demons upon Zartosht for his destruction, an
incarnation (tanu) of its spiritual existence stood opposed to them, in
that weapon proceeding from Zartosht, to keep them back.
8. And he spoke again thus:
'The religion of the benefiters progresses there in him who, through good
actions, has joyfulness owing to his righteousness ; and, through
that saying, an arrow reaches spiritually unto the demons, equal to ten of that
which was first spoken, and, at the falling of the demons upon Zartosht
for his destruction, it stood spiritually opposed to them, and that
weapon proceeding from Zartosht kept them back.
9. The third utterance of
Zartosht, on the bringing forth of his arms, was thus: 'That which
the first existence produced is to be so practiced, with attention, through
actions to be concealed by him who is a priestly authority (rado) ;'
and through that saying an arrow reaches spiritually unto the demons, equal to
one hundred of that which was first spoken; and, at the falling of
a demon upon Zartosht for his death, its spirit, as a
sacred being, kept the demon away from Zartosht.
10. And, when the whole body of
Zartosht was brought forth, trouble (asipo) fell among the demons, and
the demons rushed back to hell in haste; light increased among the creatures,
and every creature of the beneficent sacred being is pleased and talked of
virtuous conduct. 11. And Ohrmazd took away Zartosht with joyfulness to provide
security for him, and Arduisur, Ashishwangh, and the primitive and
Kayanian glory in the body of Zartosht spoke to Zartosht of its production
by Ohrmazd thus: 'Thou shouldst think of him who is wise.' 12. Thereupon
Zartosht spoke spiritually, in reply, thus: 'I am a Mazda-worshipper, I
profess the Mazda-worship of Zartosht ; and this means that I
am an apostle of Ohrmazd, and am sent by Ohrmazd.'
13. And Ohrmazd spoke to
Zartosht thus: 'As to the sacred beings of the worldly existence,
do thou beg companionship from them; but as to the demons, do
thou long for (dosh)  separation from every one of them; practice good
thoughts, good words, and good deeds, and abstain from evil thoughts, evil
words, and evil deeds.' 14. Also about vigilantly reverencing the sacred beings,
and the reward thereof; not strengthening the vile, nor weakening  the good;
expounding for the disturber of religion (dino-padresh), and producing
liberality for the accepters of religion; and not turning away from the
religion on account of fondness for body and life.
15. The accepting of such
advice spiritually by Zartosht, and his glorifying Ohrmazd, for creativeness,
sovereignty, and all goodness, and the primary archangels and other good
creations, each separately, for their own special glory . 16. And,
afterwards, the grumbling of the evil spirit maliciously, at that vexation,
thus: I have produced, for the annoyance  of any upholder of that
religion of thine, 99,999 wizards, 99,999 wolf-worshippers , and 99,999
17. Ohrmazd spoke to Zartosht
thus: 'Maintain this religion steadfastly, for through the assistance of this
religion I, who am Ohrmazd, will be with thee, and the omniscient wisdom becomes
thine, and extends to thy disciples, Maidok-mah , Parshadgavo , Seno
, Kay Vishtasp, Frashostar, and Jamasp , the teacher of public
observance and will to the righteous, besides many of the people who are
diligent and even those who are idle, and their good works and praise will be
owned by thee.' 18. Likewise about the worldly display of the religion to
Zartosht by Ohrmazd, the accepting of the religion by Zartosht
through recitation and faith, and the reverence of the Ahunwar  by Zartosht.
19. Also about Ohrmazd having
created the creatures in the spiritual existence, and their allotment
out to the worldly existence, the superiority of the righteous man as
compared with other creatures, and, among mankind, of him who is relying
on the provisions of the law and its unchangeableness from goodness, and
who is a teacher and provider of teaching as to the pre-eminent
existence of the good religion of the sacred beings.
20. And a summary about the
bringing together of that fire which is the residue of a fire in a house, for
the reverence of that water which is nearest to the dwelling, and of any
spirit of a kinsman; and as to him who leaves that fire, water, and
spirit, and, on account of a similar desire, reverences another fire, water, and
spirit, but none of them can accept that ceremonial, and the acceptance of that
man's ceremonial by the others will have occurred just when the former
three are reverenced by him.
21. Righteousness is perfect
1. The second of the Nasks and
third of the Gathic division (see Bk. 8, Chap. 1.9, 12). It is a second
commentary on the Gathas, devoting a fargard to each ha of the Gathas and to
each Gathic formula, as in the Sudgar Nask, but beginning with an extra fargard
about the birth and calling of Zartosht. Its chief object appears to be the
quotation of texts, both from the Gathas and from sources no longer known.
2. Here written asrapaitish (B)
and asrapaitish (K) in Pahlavi, which, no doubt, stand for Av. aethrapaitish,
Pers. herbad, 'a Zoroastrian priest.' This name may either refer to the general
subject of the fargard, or have been the first word of its Avesta text; as it
seems not intended to quote any section of the Yasna, although the guardian
spirits of the priests are reverenced in Yas. 26.7, 8, before commencing the
recitation of the Gathas.
3. Av. Maidhyo-maungha; he was
first cousin of Zartosht, and also his first disciple (see Bd. 32.2, 3; Zs.
4. B has 'at the birth of his
5. B has ham-visagih, K ham-disagiih.
6. Assuming that vagano stands
for vagdano, which word occurs in §
4, according to K.
7. B omits 'the shoulder of'
8. Av. Aredvi Sura of Yt. 5, a
title of Anahita, the female angel of the waters.
9. See Bk. 8, Chap. 9.3.
10. Pahl. aurukspar = Av.
11. Av. Rata, who is associated
with the archangel Spenta Armaiti in Yt. 2.3, 8; S.1,5, S2.5, and with Ashi
Vanguhi in Yt 24.8.
12. Av. kavaem hvareno (see
13. B has 'whenever his birth
14. This, with the first clause
of the response, is the Pahlavi version of the concluding formula of Y26.11,
without the extra Pahlavi glosses.
15. See Bk. 8, Chaps 11.1-4,
16. This is the Pahlavi version
of Y.34.13b, without the glosses.
17. This is the Pahlavi version
of Y. 33.1a, b, without the glosses and incomplete.
18. This is the Pahlavi version
of part of Y12.7, 8 (XIII, 25 Sp.) without the glosses.
19. B has 'hope for' (nyosh).
20. Assuming that nizorinidano
(K) stands for nizarinidano; B has zorinidano, which is synonymous with the
previous niruchinidano, 'strengthening.'
21. Or it may be 'in his own
particular soul (nisman).'
22. Pahl. reshidarih, which B
23. This term, gurg-yazako
(=Av. vehrkayaza), does not occur in the extant Avesta.
24. See § 1.
25. Av. Parshad-gau of Yt.
13.96 (compare Paz. Parshadga of Bd. 29.5). This name can also be read
Fradadayano and be compared with Av. Fradhidaya of Yt. 13.97.
26. Av. Saena of Yt. 13.97, who
is said to have 'first set forth upon this earth with a hundred disciples.'
Further details about him are given in Chap. 33.5. In the third and seventh
books of the Denkard his name is written Shenov (for Shenok or Shenoe) which has
been read Dayun by Peshotan (Dk. pp. 308-314 of English translation), as pointed
out by Darmesteter in his Textes Pehlvis relatifs au Judaisme, p. 3, n 2.
In Dk. 7 he is said to have been a high-priest who was born in the 100th year of
the religion, and died in its 200th year.
27. See Bk. 8, Chap. 38.68.
28. See Bk. 8, Chap. 1.7.
1. The second fargard,
Yatha-ahu-vairyo , is about the worthiness, as to worldly and spiritual
virtue, in a ruler and in the production of a high-priest's efficiency; and they
have been suitable for leadership and priestly authority with whom there is an
existence of it; also other talent through which sovereignty and priestly
authority are appropriated, and which the ruler or high-priest himself
2. 'My wish (dosh), O Zartosht!
is that thou be in spiritual lordship and priestly authority, because
thou art, O Zartosht! provided with a spiritual lord and possessing
priestly instruction -- that is, they consider thee, too, as high-priest -- and
it is because thine is the accomplishment of rites, that thou art quite
preserved when there is an encounter of the demons with thee -- that is,
a dispute of apostates with thee.' 3. It is non-possession of a ruler and
high-priest, or non-possession of a ruler , that became the
nature and law of the demons; and the maintenance of Ohrmazd and the
archangels, as ruler and high-priest, and the dominion of Ohrmazd are combined
4. This, too, that through
righteousness a priestly instructor (rado) is a ruler at will, a sage and
benefactor, a cherisher and cleanser (asnidar) of the poor; also the fitness for
the supreme heaven (garothman) of all those who are accepting the
religion which proceeds from Zartosht.
5. Of righteousness the
excellence is perfect.
1. The Ahunwar (see Bk. 8,
Chap. 1.7) upon which this fargard is a commentary quoting some text on the
subject in §
2. K omits these five words,
and B has a blank space for the letters khud in khudai, 'ruler.'
1. The third fargard, Ashem-vohu
, is about admonition as to the praising of righteousness; which is itself
the production of true awe of Ohrmazd, the perfection of existences, the better
state of prayers , and the greatest assemblage of righteousness, good
breeding, humility (avopatagih), awe of the spiritual existence, extreme
joyfulness, and comfort and enlightenment of soul. 2. Also the equipment
(padmukih) of him who is practicing as a high-priest is righteousness and the
maintenance of the worship and obeisance for the spirit of righteousness.
3. Of righteousness perfect is
1. See Chap. 3.1 n.
2. K omits 'of prayers.'
1. The fourth fargard,
Yenhe-hatam , states that Ohrmazd spoke to Zartosht the Spitaman thus:
' Utter the words of the ceremonial and obeisance for us who are
Ohrmazd and  the archangels, because they are, O Zartosht! thy
ritual for water , ritual for plants, ritual for a guardian spirit of
the righteous [[Asho Farohars]], and ritual for an angel of a spiritual existence,
or who is even appointed for a worldly existence.'
2. And Zartosht spoke thus: 'I will
utter the words of Ohrmazd, which are opposed to harm and are the
ordinance of Ohrmazd, those of the ceremonial and obeisance for you who
3. Of righteousness perfect is
1. See Chap. 4.1 n. The texts
quoted in this fargard appear to be no longer extant.
2. B omits 'Ohrmazd and.'
3. K omits 'ritual for water.'
1. The fifth fargard,
Yanim-mano , is about the beneficence and worthiness of Zartosht,
through the virtuousness of his thoughts, words, and deeds ; the
priority of Ohrmazd , and the first possession of obeisance (niyayeshno) to
him; the mindful performance of obeisance to the sacred beings, and all
the merit of obeisance to the sacred beings; the excellence of receiving
a righteous man, of bringing fire together, and of maintaining the
good religion; the elementary (kham) wisdom  of the creator, and the
consideration of every duty towards his will and creation; the outward
indication as to propitious discrimination and of what is done by those
who are propitious; and the existence of every kind of self-attraction
by Zartosht towards the religion, from first to last, through the
complete reasoning thought that arose solely through obeisance to the
2. This, too, that 'thou art
come to the supreme heaven (Garothman) , O righteous Zartosht! thou art aware
of the deeds, O Zartosht! which were practiced by those in the bodily
existence, and which still they practice, and the sacred beings have placed
upon mankind acquiring the power of good works.' 3. And about the wonderfulness
of the supreme heaven there is this, too, that whoever is in that abode
is not any one that passes away after his birth; at the time of the renovation of
the universe the supreme heaven is lowered down to the star station , the
earth being up to there, and Vohuman  is summoned for every purpose to
the conference, and, when they call him, Mihr's  investigation as regards the
existence of righteousness is on the spot; through the coming of that archangel
 of true statements for assistance, and through the cooperation of the other
archangels and Srosh  the righteous, is the overpowering of the vexing of
distressers ; and the assistance of the archangels for Zartosht was when
he went forth for disabling the vicious law of Iran. 4. Concerning Zartosht there
is this, too, in the words of Ohrmazd, that is: 'Thou art our own, O Zartosht!
and this liberality to thee is ours; anything one gives to thee is
given by him to us;' also the announcement to Zartosht, and the
bringing of him to Vishtasp  for his assistance and likewise the
strength  of his sovereignty for him.
5. The discipleship and
veneration of Frashostar  also, and the laudation of Frashostar for making
the religion progressive and for its true transmission in the words of
Ohrmazd; also the whole righteousness of those whom Frashostar attracted to the
6. About the laudation of
Zartosht there is this, too, that is: 'Thou art not astray from
us, neither in life, nor in inquiry, nor in openly announcing, even
when demonstrating  the religion to others, nor in anything whatever, O
Spitaman! from us who are archangels; and the donation of benefit to
supplicants is the food, and the clothing for us, who are in the ceremonial of
the sacred beings, is unworn (asudako) .'
7. About guarding a friend,
managing an unfriendly person, and affording a person shelter for the
sake of protection, justice, and rectitude ; also the unworthy condition of
that man who, requiring to perform those duties and good works that are
important, shall perform those that are trivial. 8. And this, too, that is:
'Thou art likewise aware, and thou also understandest it, O righteous
Zartosht! through the sagacity of my wisdom, which was the first among
existences , and which is also so unto the last existence.'
9. Righteousness is excellence
that is perfect.
1. See Chap. 5.1 n.
2. See Pahl. Yas. 28.0.
3. Ibid. 1 b.
4. Ibid. 1 c.
5. Ibid. 4 a.
6. The lowest grade of heaven
(see Sls. 6.3 n).
7. See Bk. 8, Chap. 9.3 for
8. See Bk. 8, Chap. 44.16.
10. See Pahl. Yas. 28.6 c.
11. See Bk. 8, Chap. 11.1; and
compare Pahl. Yas. 28.6b, 7b, c.
12. So in K, but B has 'also
his announcement on being brought to Vishtasp, and Zartosht was an assistance
to him and the strength, &c.'
13. See Bk. 8, Chap. 38.68, and
compare Pahl. Yas. 28.8 b, c.
14. K has 'when thou wouldst
15. See Pahl. Yas. 28.10 c.
16. Ibid. 11 a.
17. Ibid. 11 c.
1. The sixth fargard,
Khshmaibya , is about the complaint of Goshorun  to Ohrmazd, when she sat
at the creation in the assembly of the archangels, as regards the abundant
disease and misery which she saw spiritually would come upon her in a
bodily existence, through beating, slaughtering, and wounding, stealing,
plundering, and presenting, by him of vicious actions and worse desires,
as a bribe to him who is an evil-ruling villain (mar), and the operation
thereof: the bad ownership, wrongful investigation, false evidence, and making
captive (vardako), by him who is wrathful and oppressive through greed
and envy, from the warm cowshed and the effective and diligent
guardianship of the herd's dog (pasush-haurvo), to that which is a cold and hastily-constructed
place ; or by him who is seeking meat with a merciless hand
through making her distantly separated from her young. 2. Also their explanation
and extenuation (kastano) , and the causing of misery of many kinds thereby,
'which is no affliction to them when the wind that is cold , or even
that which is hot, comes upon me; which is no affliction to them when,
the untimely offspring of my womb being cast away, they slaughter
me; and is no affliction to them when the serpent, the leech (khun-garai) , or
even the foulest of noxious creatures gnaws me.' 3. And the petition of
Goshorun was thus: 'Do not appoint me to a worldly existence, and
that awful misery, or, if thou appointest me to a worldly existence, produce
it for me without life (auzushtaniha), so that I may be without feeling
and may want that distressing  pain; it is created for the mighty,
through whose assistance there is a capability of affording protection to me,
even though the Kay and Karap  exist.'
4. And, together with
the just complaint of Goshorun, and the compassion of the archangels as to that
complaint, there is then the creation of the creatures, among whom the
greatest and best  is mankind, for fighting and subduing the destroyer, even
though joined together with a complaint of wounding and affliction like that
of Goshorun, and Goshorun arose with greater judiciousness than an
absence of creation even with freedom from disturbance by the Kays ; on
account of the necessity of preparing for the living of mankind through
the assistance of cattle, Goshorun was produced for the material bodily
existence and assistance of mankind. 5. And, on account of little feeling for
her worldly misery, the breeding (mayinidano) of cattle was the arraying
of strife; the advancement of the Mazda-worshipping religion of Zartosht in the
world by Goshorun, on the production of Zartosht for the assistance of cattle;
and the preservation of cattle and other good creations through complete
satisfaction at the progress of the religion.
6. This, too, was said
to Goshorun, that is: 'I assert unto thee the passing away of devastation, that
is, the existence of a remedy for the misery owing to the evil spirit , for
which no creature would be produced by me -- me who am Ohrmazd -- when a
remedy for the misery owing to him had not been known to me.' 7. This, too, that
the wish of the evil spirit was thus: 'Thou shouldst never produce a creature, O
Ohrmazd! and there should be here no spiritual lordship, no priestly
authority, and no desire for perfect righteousness, or necessity for duty and
good works.' 8. The inquiry of Goshorun, thus: 'For whom am I appointed and
formed? ' and the reply to her, thus: 'For him who is diligent and moderate
9. Also the friend and
nourishment (srayishno) begged for cattle by Goshorun, the righteous man
produced for the assistance of cattle by Ohrmazd, and the sweetness in
water and plants for the nourishment of cattle, so that he is privileged to feed
and keep cattle who gives them pasture in reality, and is also diligent in
the production of cattle, that is, he gives them pasture, and is thereby
proclaimed a cattle-guardian (pasush-haurvo) for them who makes the cattle fully
develop ; and also he who gives the wicked Wrath, the foreigner, a beating,
so that he may make him stupefied . 10. The development of cattle by
Ohrmazd, advice to mankind as to moderate eating , and the grievous bridge judgment
of him who has unlawfully produced distress for the cattle
whom Goshorun is kindly regarding, with loving eyes , in the spiritual existence,
in bodily contact with (ham-kerpo-i) the archangels and in bodily contact
with the light of the sun, so that her hands are more powerful; she who replies
to the sacred beings, and the sacred beings reply to her .
11. About the statements of
Ohrmazd there is this, too, that is: 'I am a calculator of those words
 by which they assert that the existence of worldly beings is for the
sake of that of both existences; I am aware of the actions which are practiced
by those in the material existence, both demons and men; of whatever they
practice  I am the decider and lord, and it is such as my will requires
, even for the last change of existence; and I look upon all that with
that wisdom and sagacity of mine which was, which is, and which ever will be.'
12. The formation of a reward
for worldly beings by Ohrmazd, through the propitious liturgy (Mahraspand)
 which has become the precursor of the benefiters; that is, their
high-priest, who has a propitiousness and intelligence that are
all-beneficial, is he with the liturgy. 13 And about the uniqueness and
incomparableness of Zartosht among mankind, through his desire for
righteousness and his understanding the means of defeating the destroyer
 and teaching the creatures.
14. Righteousness is perfect
1. See Chap. 6.1 n; it is here
written khshmaiba (B) and khshmaibe (K) in Pahlavi.
2. See Chap. 15.3; Pahl. Yas.
3. Or it may be 'fining and
beating,' as K has kustano.
4. B has 'when some of
that which is cold,' writing aito for vado in this first clause, and amat
min for amatam in the first and third clauses.
6. K has 'ill-passing.'
7. See Bk. 8, Chap. 35.13 n.
8. B has 'or whom the best.'
9. The obnoxious tribe, or
class, mentioned in §
3. After the word 'affliction' K completes the clause to this point as follows:
'just as Goshorun arose with greater judiciousness than an absence of creation
even with an adversity of the primitive tendency.'
10. See Pahl. Yas. 29.6
11. Ibid. 1 a.
14. See Pahl. Yas. 29.2 c.
15. Ibid. 7 b.
16. Pahl. kamako-doisar = Av.
vouru-doithra, an epithet of Rata, 'liberality' (see Chap. 24.3), and Saoka,
'prosperity;' but here applied to Goshorun.
17. Some words in § 10 occur
also in Pahl. Yas. 29.3.
18. See Pahl. Yas. 29.4 a.
19. Ibid. 4 b.
20. Ibid. 4 c.
21. Ibid. 7 a.
22. See Pahl. Yas 29.8 c.
1. The seventh fargard, Ad-ta-vakhshya
, is regarding the maintenance of the worship and obeisance of the religion
and the spirit of the liturgy; and this, too, that the spirit of the ceremonial
of him who is a right-thinking, intelligent, and wise  man is quickly mixed
up with the light of the sun, and connected with the accomplishment of the
wishes and the joy of the archangels.
2. About the choice of will by
mankind, and the existence of a way to reward through their decision.
3. About advice to mankind as
to seeking that position in which it is possible to remain long with fondness,
and as to reciting and teaching  the revelation of the sacred beings.
4. And, from the statement of
Zartosht, about the shouting of the demon Aresh  to mankind, thus: 'Ohrmazd
and Ahriman have been two brothers in one womb , and out of them the
archangel  liked that which is evil , through what occurs when the
understanders of it have mentioned the worship of the demons and this,
that, after it, you should present cattle to the planetary bodies and the
demons.' 5. About the falsity of the demon Aresh, the separate origin of light
and darkness, the goodness of the material existence of light for
determining what is done, and the evil of that of darkness.
6. The grumbling of the evil
spirit thus: 'I am he whose thoughts are evil, O beneficent spirit! he
whose words are evil, and he whose deeds are evil ; what
is dark is my garment which is very thick, with lower corners where, so far as
many go, it is still darker ; evil thoughts, evil words, and evil
deeds are my food, and I love those of them who are in that place through
evil thoughts, evil words, and evil deeds.' 7. And the speaking of Ohrmazd thus:
'I am he whose thoughts are good, O evil spirit! he whose words are good,
and he whose deeds are good ; the sky is my garment, which was first
produced from that substance of the worldly existences which is created
as the stone above all stones , that is, every jewel is set in it; good
thoughts, good words, and good deeds are my food, and I love those of them
who are in that place through good thoughts, good words, and good
8. This, too, that true
discrimination is not for them, the demons  astute in evil; and they never
truly discriminate whose will is that of Akoman . 9. And about the sickening
(vimarinidano) of the patron spirits of mankind, by the demons ,
through the deceit of man towards man owing to the deceit of the demons; and the
approach of mankind to evil proceedings on the part of the spiritual
lordship, through those patron spirits .
10. Also the sending of
monarchy and the wisdom of religion, by Ohrmazd, for the preservation of the
creatures; the recurrence of the mission  whereby there are injury
and affliction for the demons and sovereignty again for Ohrmazd, and they
possess the reward of Vohuman  and what is required by the sacred
beings; and the predominance of man over demon, in the end, the good over
the evil, and the righteous over the wicked; also about the nature of those who
are producing the renovation of the universe. 11. This, too, that is
a declaration: 'They are those, O Zartosht the Spitaman! who shall produce the
renovation, they have escaped (girekhto) among the existences, they are vigilant
 in seeking righteousness, and gentle-voiced; and, as regards righteousness
in thought, they convert into righteousness anything virtuous which belongs to
them.' 12. About the statement of those praised it is recited that it is
thus mentioned in the Gathas: 'So we are with those who are thine -- that
is, we are thine own -- by us this renovation is to be produced in the
existences .' 13. About the perpetual convocation held by the
archangel regarding the production of the future existence .
14. This, too, that he is an
extender of the days of those who defeat the army of the fiend  and clothe
themselves with deeds of shining light, and also those of a virtuous
body, who are these: the priest, the warrior, the husbandman, and the man who is
a ruler; with whom are Ashishwangh  and the spirit of liberality (radih)
; they meditate with good thoughts (hu-minishnih)  and joy, and, with
pleasure to themselves they give the world into the guardianship of Ohrmazd, and
also of Ardwahisht , when they possess the religion of Ohrmazd as a ruler.
15. This, too, that he, whose thoughts are through a high-priest who possesses a
patron spirit, always thinks that which is virtuous, and his sagacity increases
16. And about advice to mankind
as to three things, through which the renovation and happy progress of the
creatures arise, namely, seeking the true religion, abstaining from injuring the
creatures, and striving for the benefit of mankind.
17. The excellence of
righteousness is perfect.
1. See Chap. 7.1 n; it is here
written at-tag-vakhshe in Pahlavi in both MSS.
2. See Pahl. Yas. 30.1 a, c.
3. Ibid. 2 c.
4. See Chap. 31.6; the demon or
envy, or malice, called Areshk, or Arashk, in Bd. 15.18, Bd. 28.16.
5. See Pahl. Yas. 30.3 a. This
materialization of the Gathic text here reported as the utterance of a malicious
demon, corresponds very closely with the statement of the Armenian Eznik quoted
in Haug's essays, p. 13.
6. That is, the arch-demon who
was archangel of the demons.
7. See Pahl. Yas. 30.5 a.
8. Ibid. 3 b.
9. Referring to hell.
10. See Pahl. Yas 30.3b.
11. Ibid. 5 b.
12. See Pahl. Yas. 30.6 a.
13. Evil thought (see Bk. 8,
14. See Pahl. Yas. 30.6 c.
15. The ahu, or patron spirit,
having become diseased and incapable of true ahvoih, or spiritual lordship,
through the action of the demons.
16. Reading lakhvar
petami-hastano (or petam gastano) which probably refers to the later missions of
Aushedar, Aushedar-mah, and Soshyant (see Bk. 8, Chap. 14.12-14).
17. See Pahl. Yas. 30.8 b.
18. Pahl. zen-havand=Av.
19. See Pahl. Yas. 30.9 a.
20. Ibid. 9 b.
21. Ibid. 10 a.
22. The female angel of perfect
rectitude (see Book 8, Chap. 9.3).
23. See Chap. 24.3.
24. See Pahl. Yas. 30.10 b.
25. Ibid. 10 c and Book 8,
26. See Pahl. Yas. 30.9 c.
1. The eighth fargard, Ta-ve-urvata
, is about advice as to reciting  the revelation, the information
therefrom for the faithful, about which they have to report to the
unfaithful, by mentioning conspicuous specimens and explanatory
knowledge, and by thinking of anything whatever which they have
to accept, or even which they have not to accept ; also,
for one called to the religion, the advantage owing to the attraction
of mankind to the numerous actual disciplehood of the religion, and the
increasing greatness materially, and further reward spiritually, owing to the
numerous disciplehood; and the progress of the religion of Ohrmazd even among
the irreligious (adenoan)  and actual apostates .
2. This, too, that the life of
the creatures of Ohrmazd and also all other benefit are owing to Ohrmazd  and
the inclination (kamvarichako) of Ohrmazd thereto; moreover, reward and
recompense come from Ohrmazd. 3. And the creatures of Ahriman proceed from
Ahriman, all misery is owing to Ahriman, and Ahriman becomes worse and more
oppressive and a further producer of misery when they worship him.
4. About the continuance and
arranging of both spirits as to their own creations (sti) and the self-acting of
their own appliances; the achievement of each one through his own natural
resources and through the trifling (gadaganik) operation of the other the
spiritual lordship and priestly authority, true confession and the
progress of the good religion, being from Ohrmazd, and, through
enmity to the creatures of Ohrmazd, Ahriman is contesting these. 5.
Ohrmazd, for setting aside that contester, is the producer of true intelligence.
and gave language and also the ritual of ordeal ; the invocation of
the sacred beings  for assistance, and the arrival of an angel for the
assistance of the invokers; the overcoming of their affliction, the production
of their immunity and even righteousness, and also of that good
ruler  who is a reminder of Ohrmazd, and the restoration of bodies, which is
the hope of all good creations, are through the sacred beings being invoked
for assistance and their arrival where the diffusion  is that of
virtuous knowledge through Vohuman , the good religion which is whatever may
be the knowledge  of all those who are, and were, and will
6. About the shouting of the
demon Aresh  to Zartosht and the reply of Zartosht as to the advice
of Ohrmazd and whatever is on the same subject. just as revelation (deno) states
it, that the demon Aresh spoke to him thus: 'Then the Franamam , O Zartosht!
is applicable to the assembly of demons who sit in the same place three
nights and four days on account of thee.' 7. Zartosht inquired of him thus: 'O
Aresh, thou most deceitful to me! what recompense would there be
for it to me, if I should worship you in words?' 8. And Aresh, the
most deceitful of demons, spoke to him thus: 'Thou wouldst become
predominant among mankind, through producing at will among the existences just
as is requisite for thyself; and thou wouldst become immortal, O Spitaman!'
9. Zartosht also inquired of him thus: 'O Aresh, most deceitful of demons as
to the people by whom you are worshipped, whether for the birth of a son, or
even for a concubine sought for enjoyment, so that the favor is
considered by them as your property, how can any one of them be immortal?' 10.
And Aresh, the most deceitful of demons, could not tell him who had the more
intelligence. 11. So Zartosht spoke thus: 'I am for that being
and I like him, that is, I am his own and would transact his affairs, and
I will recite the law and the benedictions of the sagacious Ohrmazd, the
gratifier of desires.'
12. About the deliverance of
all creatures through the liturgy , and, so long as it is continued by them,
it is for the power through which the immortality of the separate
creations is prepared in the renovation of the universe; the increase of
the good creatures through the complete continuance of the liturgy, and the
existence of purity and development of goodness in the world when he who is a
good ruler arrives.
13. The arising of the
spiritual creation, the first thought of Ohrmazd; and, as to the
creatures of Ohrmazd, first the spiritual achievement, and then the material
formation and the mingling of spirit with matter; [the advancement of the
creatures thereby, through his wisdom and the righteousness of Vohuman
being lodged  in the creatures,] and all good creatures being goaded (zakhami-hastano)
thereby into purity and joyfulness. 14. This, too, that a complete understanding
of things arises through Vohuman having made a home in one's reason (varom).
15. About the great reward of
him who shall produce benefit for cattle ; also the deceitfully and
seductively assuming of religion and coloring of thought, talking of
righteousness and adopting evil practices, through the recitation of
righteousness even hypocritically (davansiha-ch); and an instance of the
reward of an undutiful (avar'zidar) apostate . 16. About the work of the
creator; and, for the completion thereof, the most eminent is understood to
be when the world and religion were formed  by him, when
life was given by him to those possessing bodies , and  he
provides instruction and employment  for it, and when spiritual life (huko)
 was given by him to the wishful man, so that he may more fully
appropriate a share of the worldly and spiritual existences.
17. He who makes
complete mindfulness  lodge in his body consults complete
mindfulness, and , through the much investigation of his spiritual
life (ahvo) and mind into the attraction of both spirits -- that which is
good and also that which is evil -- each separately for its own appliances, and
into the duties of the religion of Ohrmazd, is explaining the inefficiency of
mankind, as regards the dissipation of their sin, because Ohrmazd is aware of
all they practice, that which is public and that, too, which is concealed .
18. The great reward of him who is liberal of gifts (dasar) from his own
property to a righteous man; and this, too, that whoever gives him who is
wicked  a gift, for the sake of improper expectations, assists darkness and
19. This, too, that the worst
ruler is he of evil religion and evil deeds, who even for a bribe
 would not occasion happiness; he who is a destroyer of an innocent man;
also the grievous state of punishment of that person, in hell, who shall
make that wicked one a ruler . 20. And advice to mankind as to
providing a judge and guardian over every dwelling, the probation of a man for
appointment 'a that important duty, and the development of all creations
in the world when its ruler is sagacious .
21. Also causing the
disturbance (va-shiklinidano) of the evil spirit for satisfying a man who is
rightly thinking, rightly speaking, and rightly acting; the opposition to
a righteous man of a wicked one belonging to the evil spirit, who
is an evil-reciting and improperly-disputing apostate; the enticement (lusinidano)
of mankind to devious ways (avariha), by an apostate, being more
than that which attracts to the true way for a righteous man, and
afterwards also, in the end the defeat of the army of the fiend by him who
is beneficial to mankind. 22. Advice to mankind about abstaining from the
suite of him who is an apostate, not hearing and not solemnizing the Avesta and
Zand of the sacred beings from him ; also the evil behavior (dush-barishnih),
slander, strife, death, and fear in the world owing to apostates . 23. Advice
to upholders of the religion about the means of thoroughly understanding
apostates, and preparing and keeping a weapon for them , go that he
who is authorized and fearless may be more eager for truthful speaking;
and, when the religion of Ohrmazd is liked by him, his truthful speaking
and other righteousness have then allured (kamakinido) .
24. Also what happens in
the three nighs , for the assistance and preservation of the
righteous, through what is accomplished by the propitious fire ; and
the progress of his lamentation who deceives and vexes a righteous man , and
is leading the wicked by their own befitting deeds to hell  25. This,
too, that the complete worthiness which exists in Hordad and Amurdad 
arises in him who maintains the prerogative which is his  through
virtuousness, who must become such a friend of whatever is his own spirit,
through his actions , as the creator is of his own creatures. 26.
This, too, that whatever is thus in the world is perfect, when every one thinks,
speaks, and shall act just like his spiritual lord and high-priest
; so that a good ruler is he with whom virtuous speaking arises, as well as
proper action  27. And this, too, that the lodgment of Ohrmazd in the
worldly existence is most in the person of that ruler , and that
lodgment in him is manifest.
28. The excellence of righteousness
1. See Chap.
8.1 n; it is here written tag-va-rato in Pahlavi in both MSS.
2. Sec Pahl.
Yas. 31.1 a.
3. B omits
these last eight words.
4. K has
5. See Pahl.
Yas. 31.1 c.
6. Ibid. 2 c.
7. See Pahl.
Yas. 31.3 b, c.
8. Ibid. 4 a,
9. Ibid. 4 c.
10. K has
11. See Pahl.
Yas. 31.5 b.
12. K has
13. The demon
of envy, as in Chap. 30.4. The occurrence of his dialogue with Zartosht
in this place explains the word [.....] which is found twice in Pahl. Yas. 31.5
b, and has been read hu-varih, 'good judgment,' or hu-vaharih, 'good fortune.'
In the MSS. called Pt4 and Mf4, in Geldner's edition of the Avesta, this Pahlavi
word is both times separated into two thus: [.. ...] which may be read avo Aresh,
'to Aresh,' and the whole § 5 b may be
translated as follows: 'The gift of understanding through Good Thought is that which
thou shouldst give unto me (that is, that wisdom thou shouldst proclaim to
me as virtuousness), which is to me (through what pertains to it)
that which is for Aresh (that is, through that wisdom which is virtuosness it
shall become possible for me to give a reply to Aresh).' The reply here
mentioned appears to be that given in § 11 of our
text; and the name Aresh explains the word ereshi in the original Avesta text as
meaning 'envy' and being equivalent to araska.
Mazda-worshipper's profession of faith, beginning with word Av. fravarane (Yas.
1.23) = Pahl. franamam.
15. See Pahl.
Yas. 31.6 b.
16. Ibid. 6 c.
The passage in brackets occurs only in K.
17. Ibid. 10
18. See Pahl.
Yas. 31.10 c.
19. Ibid. 11
20. Ibid. 11
originally in B, but altered into 'when,' by the repairer of the MS., so as to
agree with K.
22. See Pahl.
Yas. 31.11 c.
23. B has
kamak, 'desire,' with 'the wishful' in the plural, and this might agree better
with Pahl. Yas. 31.11 c, but not with the next clause in the sentence here,
where both nominative and verb are in the singular.
24. See Pahl.
Yas. 31.12 c. This term is the Pahl. equivalent of Av. Armaiti which is usually
personified as the female archangel Spandarmad.
25. The MS. K
is left unfinished at this point, merely adding the words expressed by 'into the
attraction of,' in this translation. For the remainder of Book 9 the only known
MS. authority is B.
26. See Pahl.
Yas. 31.13 a.
27. See Pahl.
Yas. 31.14 b.
28. Ibid. 14
29. Ibid. 15
30. Ibid. 15
31. Ibid. 16
32. Ibid. 18
33. Ibid. 18
34. Pahl. Yas.
35. Ibid. 19
37. See Pahl.
Yas. 31.19 c and Chap. 12.4.
38. Ibid. 20
39. Ibid. 20
40. Ibid. 21 a
and Chap. 19.1.
41. Ibid. 21
42. Ibid. 21
43. Ibid. 22
44. Ibid. 22
45. Ibid. 22
1. The ninth fargard,
Hvaetumaiti , is about the coming of three deceitful demons, and their making
supplication (lajak-karih) to Ohrmazd , so that he should consider and
reward those aggrieved by him, and it would amount to strength for them in
destroying the creatures. 2. The disgorging (akhvardano) of supplication by
those demons clamorously upwards from an abyss, and the statement of one that he
is  the kindred that is undeceitful, of another one that he is the
serfdom that is undeceitful, and of the third one that he is the
confederacy that is undeceitful, was in these words, namely: 'We
are those spirits when the kinsman, confederate, and serf  do not break
promises, one with the other; we are not really these that are no implements of
thine, but our religion and law are thine, and we do thy will; we become
assistants of him who is thy friend, and injurers of him who is
thy enemy ; and from thee we beg a position in the existence that is
best, the reward that is a reward of the worthy.'
3. The reply of Ohrmazd to them
was thus: 'You rush out, astute in evil, to the extremity (bun) of that
horrible gloom ; so you are all from the demon, your race is really from Evil
Thought, that is, your race is from there where Evil Thought , as well as
Lust the destroyer and also Greed the well accumulating, resides, and where,
moreover, Indar the fighter is the spirit of the religion of apostasy and
further deceives the worldly existence of mankind, as to proper living
and immortal progress , and first confines their thoughts. 4. He shall first
do this, so that he may restrain the thoughts of men from virtuous things
, and their further words and perverted further deeds from the ceremonial of
us who are archangels; they further lose their wisdom , and further consider
even as perfect righteousness that which is loved by the demons; they
utter the false words and consecrate with the worse deeds of mankind; and with
the holy-water which one consecrates most to you, more falsely and
more arrogantly  than that falsity and arrogance, do they enhance the
greatest ceremonial, so that they shall make more of the most. 5. Owing to
discord, through that love of you who are demons, they smite with destruction him
who shall not be a satisfaction to you in the presidency; and the
leader they take (girend) becomes a destroyer, so in the sequel, too, there is some
one that smites him; even though they consider him as your
follower, they shall occasion his destruction. 6 You are evil demons for a
congregation when they speak of avoiding you, and worse for the ceremonial, or
obeisance, when it occurs that which becomes all clearness to the
utterer of righteousness, in this existence, you utterly destroy; and the
lodgment of complete mindfulness in the body is for admonition to human beings
about abstaining from the demons.'
7. This, too, is stated, namely:
'Evil are you who are wicked and worship the demons with
good holy-water and with words; through them the holy-water obtains evil
recompense, even the hell that is horrible.' 8. This, too, he spoke, namely:
'Concerning those malicious demons  I will first mention intelligibly
to thee when they have come to the world, that is, first when they have rushed
in, how their jurisdiction arose. 9- For thirty centuries  those of
my world were immortal and undecaying. O Zartosht but when the
thirtieth century was accomplished , O Spitaman! the sweat (khvae) produced
by the demons then came on to my Gayomard , for his affliction, so long a
time as a man speaks forth these words of the Yatha-ahu-vairyo
, relating to the spiritual lord and priestly master. 10. And when he issued
from that sweat he was shadowless, that is, darkness had entered ; and the
words of the formula (ayin) relating to the spiritual lord and priestly master were
spoken forth by me, and when vastarem  was uttered by
me the demons then fell  into the gloom.'
11. About the harm owing to the
demons this, too, he spoke, namely: 'The destructiveness of the
evil spirit is his evil teaching by statements  to my
creatures; and my riches (ishto) plundered by him are the proportion of the
production and possession of wealth for which a desire exists
through Good Thought; that is, when they possess it with propriety it is
desirable . 12. And mankind were gratified by that son of
Vivanghau who was Yim [[Jamshed]] , and cattle were gratified
by him, producing thus the phrase "you are mankind" in words, O
Zartosht when he spoke to mankind thus: "You are the mankind for cattle,
that is, you who are mankind eat meat of your own subdivision, and
through subdivision by you there is a superabundant occurrence of meat ; you
are mankind, neither for Greed (Az), nor for Envy (Areshko) , do thou throw
away the warm entrails (taftog rudik), nor do thou throw them away warm
on account of custom (pishako), now you slay for slaughtering, so that thus it
may be beneficial for you and your servant."'
13. This, too, is stated, namely:
'Even that man is produced for the destruction of mine , who is possessed by
the wicked evil spirit; the want of discernment of that man is a tedious. life,
in which the utterance of the praise of righteousness is the want of ceremonial
of which a righteous man spoke thus: "At the place where
their pasture is you are the mankind, the all-producer that fully develops them,
and the all-collector that would thoroughly set them moving; in their
pasture you are the mankind, and they all remain ; with hospitality
for the body they remain on account of their pasture, and in fighting
they strike their heads together; you are the mankind of their pasture,
it is expedient and you deprive it of moisture  through fire; as to other
things, it was also you that made one altogether believe that untrue statement
which is a lie -- the possession of material existence by life -- owing
to external seduction by the fiend who has come chiefly to you."'
14. About the harm owing to the
demons this, too, is stated, namely: 'Their accomplishment of arrogance
over these creatures of mine, and also the unfitness for heaven (avahishtih-ich)
of a righteous man, and that, too, of a valiant one, are due to
the burial of a corpse. 15. This, too, namely: 'They who drag away a corpse 
are most hurtful for men, as regards the wealth of the religion in this world, and
as regards sheep and beasts of burden.' 16. This, too, namely: 'As
to the people, assisted by one living in terrible difficulty, who
deliver the corpse of a dead person, on a sheep or beast of burden, at
a village where they shall convey it, they distress the fire and also the
water flowing from the hills , likewise those liquids of the body
which are ten , and those saps (aevano) of plants which are fourfold
in thousands, that is, they come out a thousand at one time.'
17. 'They are giving more
assistance when  it is the corpse of a wicked person; concerning
them, too, I tell thee, O Zartosht the Spitaman! that they shall arrive
in the ninth and tenth centuries  who are the spawn of the fiend (drujo
hunoyako) and the cesspool (rikhdar) of the evil spirit; even one of them is
more to be destroyed than ten idolaters (deviyasto) by him they shall make pure,
that is, the people shall make him quite void of wealth who is a priest
without recitation and commendation. 18. And they, who will be full
many in the future, shall bring prostration upon him who is an innocent person,
the husbandman who watches the frog of the ditch (zak-i gilugo vazagh) so that
he may keep it away from mankind; and they execute ill-contrived
commands. 19. They also produce destruction for these of mine, and speak
of the living state, to these of my religion, thus: "When living is an
expediency it is in our way;" they are wicked, they dwindle through
greatness and even terror, that is, they shall commit sin through leadership and
vassalage  who are smiting thee, and they speak folly who are smiting this
pure religion of thine, O Spitaman!'
20. 'They, too, who recite this
thy revelation of the Mazda-worshippers, say that the distinction (nishon) of
those others from those who are thine, even those whom they hurt,
is this, that they plunder, they also think scornfully of this thy
ceremonial, and think scornfully of the obeisances (Niyayeshno) and of
both those blessings from me, the Avesta and Zand which I, who am the most
propitious of spirits, spoke forth to thee. 21. They also injure the ceremonial
of him who is perfectly righteous , even the obeisance arisen from a
disciple of Zartosht the Spitaman; and they chant that which is a settled
effusion (bara-hankhetunto regih) is very evil, as a perfect deed for
mankind , those of very evil deeds call joy .'
22. 'They seek sovereignty as a
devouring (grehmako), that is, they seek privilege for a bribe, and in their
abode is he who is very evil in thought, that is, they seek with this design,
that, for the hundred which another gives up, they may take two hundred
away from the other ; they destroy the best existence , they
destroy their own souls, and they destroy the world of material beings. 23. Then
they who are privileged shall convey that sovereignty of the Kik and Karb ,
even those that are the worst-ruling who are in the country, unto him who is
best-ruling in house, village, community, and province; and then both
shall keep up an uproar, he who is well-ruling and also he who is ill-ruling,
and he who is ill-ruling is beaten, and he is delivered up to the best-ruling
ruler. 24. And then, among them, he who seeks for a devouring (grehmako)
of all that which is animate, as well as that which is inanimate, is he who is
desirous of assault and complaint; and he who fears him who is a
righteous man of mine allots him comfort, and is he who watches those who
are an exposition of righteousness , and who would be wizards or witches,
so that the authorities shall inflict punishment upon them.'
25. And this, too, is
stated, namely: 'The malice of many malicious ones demands that they
shall afflict punishment on sinners  when they put (pad-mujend) life into
the body, that is, they give life back to the body; but for that purpose the
metal, melted forth, arises full upon the earth, which does not wreak vengeance on
him who is righteous, and does wreak vengeance on him who is wicked, when
I, who am Ohrmazd, produce the renovation among the existences . 26.
Thus, too, that which becomes a healthful world -- a healthful one that
is thus mine -- never first becomes that further sick one which, apart
from me, is even now the immortal and manifest place where vengeance
exists ; and they become also aware, through that sovereignty of name, that,
apart from me, even now immortal is the material world of righteousness.'
27. Excellence that is perfect
1. See Chap. 9.1 n.
2. See Pahl. Yas. 32.1 a.
3. Literally 'I am'.
4. See Pahl. Yas. 32.1 c.
5. Compare Pahl. Vend. 19.147.
6. See Pahl. Yas. 32.3 a. For
the demons here mentioned, Akomano, Vareno, and Azho, see Book 8, Chaps.
9.3, 31.44; Indar is the same as Andar (in Chap. 9.1), the arch-demon who
perverts from virtue and despises the sacred shirt and girdle [[sudre and kusti]]
(Bd. 1.27, Bd. 28.8). With reverence to the good old schism-hypothesis, that
identified the Av. daeva Indra, or Andra, with the Sans. deva Indra, it is
worthy of note that he is here represented as the pervading spirit of an
apostate religion, and is termed the kushidar, 'fighter, slayer.'
7. See Pahl. Yas. 32.5 a.
8. See Bd. 28.8.
9. See Pahl. Yas. 30.4 c.
10. Ibid. 3 b.
11. See Pahl. Yas. 32.7 a, 8
12. See Bd. 1.20, 21 But from § 10 it
appears more probable that these are the three millenniums mentioned in Bd. 1.8.
13. Bd. 3.3.
14. Ibid. 19.
15. See Book 8, Chap. 1.7 n.
16. Bd. 3.20.
17. The last word of the
formula In Bd 1.21, 22 this utterance seems to be placed before the attack upon Gayomard
but until the complete text of the Iranian Bundahishn has been examined some
doubt as to the exact sequence of its statements may be entertained.
18. Pahl. ziflunid, for
yiflunid formed from the aorist of Ch. [...] instead of the usual neflunast,
formed from the preterit.
19. See Pahl. Yas. 32.9 a.
20. Ibid. 9 b. Instead of avordo,
'plundered,' B has the miswriting spordo, 'consigned.'
21. Ibid. 8 a and Book 8, Chap.
22. Ibid. 8 b.
23. Alluding, perhaps, to the
legend detailed in Bd. 15.8, 19.
24. See Pahl. Yas. 32.10 a.
25. Or, perhaps, 'and they
remain astonished,' (va-sipo manend).
26. Pahl. viyavanined which,
with vastar, 'pasture,' occurs in Pahl. Yas. 32.10 c.
27. They who carry a corpse
alone, like the iristo-kasha of Vend. 3.15.
28. Pahl. geran-tajishno Av.
hebvainti in Yas. 38.3 and Av. thraoto-stad in Yas. 68.6, &c. It is the
second species of liquid in Bd. 21.1.
29. Only nine are mentioned in
Bd. 21.1, namely: semen, urine, sweat, skin-fluid, tears, blood, oil, saliva,
30. Assuming that mun stands
for amat as in Bk. 8, Chap. 21.10.
31. If these centuries are
dated from 'the coming of the religion,' according to the incorrect Arabian
chronology of the Bundahishn, they extended from A.D. 393 or 435 to 593 or 635
(see Byt. 3.11 n). In the ninth century lived king Yazdakard (A.
D. 399-420), surnamed 'the sinner' by the priesthood because he tolerated other
religions, and the heretic Mazdak who was put to death in A.D. 528. In the tenth
century the Muhammadan religion arose, and the Sasanian dynasty tottered to its
fall. If it were not for the manifest errors in the Bundahishn chronology, this
passage in our text might be important for fixing the age of the Pahlavi version
of this Nask.
32. Pahl. Yas. 32.11 a.
33. Ibid. 11 c.
34. Ibid. 12 a, which has
corrupted regih into resh; the former, corresponding better with the original
Av. raunghayen, can be compared with Pers.. rihidan, rezidan ;. or it might mean
'imposture,' compare Pers. rigan.
35. Ibid. 12 b.
36. See Pahl. Yas. 32.13 a; the
exact meaning of grehmako (Av. gerehma) is uncertain, and the last verb is
literally 'I may take.'
37. Ibid. 13 b.
38. Ibid. 14 a, 15 a, and Book
8, Chap. 35. 13 n.
39. Ibid. 13 c.
40. Ibid. 16 c.
41. At the resurrection all men
are said to be purified in melted metal which hurts only those who have
been wicked (see Bd. 30.19, 20).
42. That is, the earth never
1. The tenth fargard, Yathaish
, is about the renovation of the universe in the words of Ohrmazd to
Zartosht, thus: 'I have produced the effecter of the renovation, the
causer of righteousness, Soshyant, of whom mankind say that he does not
come; and yet he will come, for the righteous, with that glory which becomes
2. About the scrutiny and
consideration for moderation in a high-priest's performance of every duty
there is this, too, that the desire of that non-assailant, who is a
producer of benefit among kinsmen, among confederates, and among serfs
, as regards anything whatever, is accomplishing the will, and is a friend,
of Ohrmazd; and the spirit lodging in him is not deceived by him. 3. And advice
about distance from him in whom similarity of disposition to the fiend
and arrogance are oppressive, and who is scorning kinsmen, a sharp liar
with serfs , giving offense (veshin-dahishno) to confederates,
careless of cattle , and unfriendly to the wretched.
4. About the bridge on which there
is access to Ohrmazd , and he who reaches the best existence is visibly, or
invisibly, proceeding while offering up (auzdahan-sagitun). 5. And
the teaching of the primitive faith to Zartosht by Ohrmazd, who remained
embodying the Ahunwar (ahunavair-tanu) as the Zoti  of the world; and
at the time of the renovation Zartosht, who was from the sons of
Aezemno, is in the position of Zoti  of the whole world; Vohuvasto, son of
Snoe , from the countries of those of the religion, in the post of Havanan
; Isvand, son of Varaz, from the countries of Turan, in the post of
Atarevakhsh; Seno, son of Humstuv, from the countries of the Senan , in the
post of Frabardar; and Vishtasp, who was from the sons of Nodar , in
the post of Sroshavarez. 6. About the power and triumph which that ceremonial
becomes, even through the all-brilliance of the immortal renovation of the whole
creation in that existence.
7. This, too, that the evil
spirit  .....
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .
1. See Chap. 10.1 n; it is here
written yasaaish in Pahlavi.
2. See Pahl. Yas. 33.3 a, b.
3. Ibid. 4 b.
4. Ibid. 4 c.
5. Ibid. 5 c.
6. Ibid. 6 a. It is said, in
Bd. 30.30, that Ohrmazd comes to the world as Zoti, or chief officiating priest,
with Srosh as assistant priest, just before the renovation. Here it is not
absolutely certain whether Ohrmazd, or Zartosht, is meant as Zoti on this first
occurrence of the word.
7. Reading min Ae-zemnoan pavan
zot gas; Ayanem being an ancestor of Zartosht, eleven generations back, the
grandfather of Spitama, and the name being variously written Aiazemn, Ayazem,
Nayazem, and Aizim in different MSS. Another reading is min 3 zamon khupo zot
gas, 'from three-fold procreation, has the happy position of Zoti,' referring to
the legendary account of Zartosht's origin, as detailed in the seventh book of
the Denkard. The position of the Zoti is at the north end of the ceremonial
8. This and the two following
persons are the Vohvasti son of Snaoya, Isvad son of Varaza, and
Saena son of Ahum-stud, of Yt. 13.96, 97.
9. In the great ceremonies of
ancient times the Havanan appears to have been the priest who attended to the
Hom-mortar, and his position was near the north-west corner of the ceremonial
area; the Atarevakhsh was the priest who fed the fire, and his position was near
the south-west corner; the Frabartar was the priest who brought the necessary
utensils, and his position was near the north-east corner; and the Sroshavarez
was the priest who kept general order, his position being at the south end,
facing the Zoti at the north end. Besides these five priests, mentioned in our
text, there were three others enumerated in Visp. 3,1; Vend. 5.58, Vd. 7.17, 18,
the water-bringer near the south-east corner, the washer on the west side, and
the cleanser on the east side. In modern times the Zoti retains his ancient
duties of chief priest, while the Raspi (Bk. 8, Chap. 7.5, 9) combines the
duties of the seven others, being called by the Zoti (in Visp. 3.1) to take the
place of each of them in succession.
10. Av. Saininam of Yt. 13.144,
probably the people about Samarkand (see Bd. 12.13 n, 15.29).
11. See Yt. 5.98.
12. One folio of B is here
lost, containing the end of this chapter and the beginning of the next. The
passage missing was equivalent to about 100 lines of this translation, of which
perhaps one-fourth belonged to this chapter and three-fourths to the next.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . it is possible to come
through virtuous deeds and through virtuous thoughts.' n. And
this, too, he spoke, namely: 'That Good Thought  of mine proceeds and
notices the thoughts of the embodied existence, and of the good words
and the deeds he reports again those referring to me, as often as three times in
the same day, both of those who are liberal to thee , O
Spitaman! and of those who are illiberal to thee.'
o. The struggling of the demons
, for the putting down of all benefit from mankind, has not produced the
obtainment of their capability for that benefit which arises for mankind
through the future existence; so that that one evil is more grievous than every
evil which the demons imagine for mankind, when the latter are frightened
by them from the way of the sacred beings, and are wicked; and harder for them are
the praisers of righteousness among the apostates and the rest of the
creation, through their praise of righteousness, even when very many
p. About the progress of
Armaiti  and Tarokmat perpetually among the creatures, the disclosure of
Armaiti to mankind, and of righteousness to Tarokmat; the
listening of that vile Tarokmat to falsehood, and the distance  of
righteousness from him who is vile is like that of a sheep fled (sishd)
 from mankind. q. And this, too, that the evil spirit is beaten  by
complete mindfulness, in the struggle of those having mighty ones, just as a
powerful man beats him who is a reverent creation (niyayin dahishno) ; and
the pure Zartosht is produced by Ohrmazd, as well as the power of
Hordad and Amurdad , which acts forcibly for giving value (farg)
and preparing the creatures.
the opposition of Ohrmazd to the demons , and the valuation of the deeds of
mankind which exist for greater jurisdiction  and more
advantage of the primitive good creation; and in any doubtfulness one is to
perform the ceremonial of the sacred beings. s. About cases where the
good-will of the spirit of complete mindfulness makes mankind attain to
the good religion; and their spiritual joy  arises from the purification of
their own religion through virtuous exercise of will.
t. About the desire for a
reward for anything whatever, and the great advantage owing to a reward
of the desires of mankind; also the appropriation of the reward
through the operation of the sacred beings: 'Even through the ruler (pad) of
that dominion of yours do I produce the renovation of the existences by my
will , I who am Ohrmazd.'
u. Excellence is righteousness
that is perfect.
1. See Pahl. Yas. 34.7 a.
2. Ibid. 10 c.
3. Ibid. 9 a, 10 b, 11 b. Av.
Armaiti, 'devotion,' the female archangel Spendarmad, entitled 'complete
mindfulness' in §§
q, s. Tarokmat (Av. Taromaiti), the arch-demon of contempt and disobedience (Bd.
28.14), is her special opponent.
4. See Pahl. Yas. 34.8 c.
5. Ibid. 9 c.
6. Ibid. 10 c.
7. Ibid. 8 b.
8. Ibid. 11 a and Chap. 19.1.
9. Ibid. 11 c.
10. Ibid. 12 a.
11. Ibid. 13 b.
12. Ibid. 15 c.
1. The twelfth fargard, the
Yasna , is about the manifestation of good thoughts, good words, and good
deeds by the religion ; the lodgment of the religion in good thoughts, good
words, and good deeds; and whoever possesses good thoughts, whoever has
good words, and whoever has good deeds, by him righteousness
and the reward of the righteous are possessed. 2. This, too, that neither is he,
who is not to be born for Zartosht, an issue from parents who are not righteous,
nor yet is he, for him,. who is a manifestation of the righteous.
3. This, too, is said, namely:
'Thou shouldst give a glad-thinking desire for a spiritual lord, and an
easy-bodied constitution, to their minds, the religion which I spoke forth to
thee; so that the greatest, best, and most beneficial of existences , that are
those which cattle are wanting from men, are water, pasture,
and freedom from danger ; and those which men are wanting from
cattle are also food and clothing.' 4. This, too, that that which mankind ought
to give to the sacred beings is a power for completeness of control; and
that which the sacred beings ought to give to men is ever that which is good for
them. 5. And this, too, that thou who art Ohrmazd also suppliest it from
those sacred beings, and thou who art Zartosht also teachest it
thoroughly to that best-ruling sovereignty  and authority.
6. This, too, is said, namely:
'Let no one practice ill-perpetrated deeds, even though in a wilderness
when far from publicity, nor in distress, O Spitaman! because Ohrmazd, the
observer of everything, is aware of them; and the rule is that just as
any one whatever of the embodied existence thinks, speaks, and practices,
so great is his punishment.' 7. And this, too, that the best ceremonial and
obeisance  are the ceremonial and obeisance of a righteous man.
8. About begging for life and
receiving it, there is this, that it is customarily due to two
methods (baba): one, through leadership of righteousness , is that through
which it is evident that it is owing to virtuousness; and one,
through service of righteousness , is that which is not an evidence that it
is owing to viciousness. 9. About the case where virtuousness is
producing authority over truth, and truth over the tongue, so that thou speakest
words through the will of Ohrmazd. 10. And this, too, is said namely: 'I
am the propitious spirit who was at first and ever will be,
and am not really deceived by anything.'
11. About fire being given
by Ohrmazd for shelter and assistance by the protection of mankind; its
maintenance and assistance by mankind; and the open-heartedness of the
spirit of fire for him who shall perform obeisance to it, and for him who is to
perform obeisance to it . 12. The work which is the greatest that exists, and
is accomplished in the future existence  by the creatures become pure, occurs
through fire; and one prays for it for the sake of the requirements which
mankind acquired from the sacred beings. 13. This, too, is said, namely:
'Since thou art thus, O Zartosht! most propitiatory, that is, able
to perform most for our pleasure, we are more promptly coming than Manushchihar was
able to come, when thou beggest of us who are archangels, O Zartosht !'
14. About Ohrmazd's exhibiting
the creatures in the future existence to Zartosht. 15. And this, too,
namely, the all-brilliance of the earth, the all-brilliance of the
cattle, the all-brilliance of the plants, and the all-brilliance of every
excellence  which is a manifestation of righteousness. 16. About the
worshipping of Ohrmazd by worshippers, through advancing  in the religion of
Ohrmazd's covenant (padmano), which gave the world his righteousness; also the
good protectiveness of his rule, and of the greatness therein, is owing
to it , and the name of the ruler is Wisdom ; likewise his ceremonial --
performed while the creations owing to him live, when possessing bodies and
possessing life  -- is a benefit to all the worldly and spiritual existences.
17. And this, too, is said, namely:
'Thou art our own , and also our confederate, O Spitaman! likewise
unto us thou comest with the reverence that is good ; thine, O Zartosht! are
the greatness and completeness in performance , so that they become thy
greatness and completeness, that is, they are thine, O Zartosht! and are
boundless onwards from the middle, that is, we give thee a reward  so
enormous that, when thou shouldst stand in the middle of it, thou wouldst
not see to its limits, the width of the earth, the length of a river,
and the height of the sun .'
18. Zartosht begged of Ohrmazd
thus: 'Give unto me him who becomes a disciple of men  of the mighty through
meditation for the religion, of them who shall produce the actual
progress of this my religion of the Mazda-worshippers, and who will also
explain the good practices to this one of mine, even the blessings set
forth by me in the benedictions they possess. 19. And Ohrmazd spoke thus:
'I will give unto thee him who becomes a disciple of other men of the
mighty; they are thy kinsmen and those confederates of theirs, and thine
are their companions and their serfs , who produce the progress of this thy
religion of the Mazda-worshippers. 20. Mostly thine, O Zartosht! are their
worship and their homage; and, through their ceremonial and obeisance, the
liberality of him who is worshipped is given to thee, and righteousness
for the soul is with thee; also thy life exists owing to us, and likewise thy
body , O Zartosht! 21. Forth to thee will I, who am the creator
Ohrmazd, come in both existences , as assistance; thou becomest worthy, O
Zartosht! through Hordad and Amurdad , both of them, and through the
gratification of me, who am Ohrmazd, by those sayings and deeds which I, who
am the most propitious of spirits, proclaimed unto thee.'
22. Zartosht spoke thus: 'They
have become applicants on him who is powerful with thee .' 23. And
Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'Thou becomest an applicant and powerful in the embodied
existence.' 24. Zartosht spoke thus: 'Be thou a gratification to us in
the slow progress of life, thou most beneficent (hu-dahaktum) of
existences! that is, thou shouldst give to us .' 25. And Ohrmazd
spoke thus: I will gratify thee, O righteous Zartosht! in that best
26. Excellence that is perfect is
1. See Chap. 13, 1 n; it is
here written yast in Pahlavi.
2. See Pahl. Yas. 35.4-6.
3. Ibid. 9.
4. Ibid. 11.
5. Ibid. 13.
6. See Pahl. Yas. 35.19.
7. Ibid. 22.
8. See Pahl. Yas. 36.4, 5.
9. Ibid. 6.
10. See Pahl. Yas. 36.9-14. For
Manuschihar see Bk. 8, Chap. 13.10, 12, 18.
11. See Pahl. Yas. 37 (=5).1,
12. Ibid. 4.
13. Ibid. 3.
14. Ibid. 6.
15. Ibid. 7.
16. See Pahl. Yas. 39.13.
17. Ibid. 14.
18. See Pahl. Yas. 40.1.
19. See Pahl. Yas. 40.3.
20. This expression for
boundless extent occurs in Yas. 60.4, Yt. 13.32:
21. .See Pahl. Yas. 40.7.
22. Ibid. 10.
23. See Pahl. Yas. 41.7.
24. Ibid. 8.
25. See Chap. 19.1.
26. See Pahl. Yas. 41.10
27. Ibid. 11.
28. Ibid. 15.
1. The thirteenth fargard,
Ushtavaiti , is about the great reward of him who, through virtuous
procedure, may occasion the benefit of a man  and of the religion of
righteousness also. 2. This, too, that the maintenance of righteousness  is
through the practice of it.
3. About the tokens of a
righteous man -- that is, the evidence of him -- and his reverence for
duty and good works; also his imperceptible perversion (kastarih) -- that
is, not a single sin is manifest in him -- and he is an accomplisher of the
stipulations of Vohuman , good thoughts, good words, and good deeds, and a
comprisal of every goodness in the propitiation of the righteous. 4. About  .
. . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .
1. See Chap. 13, 1 n.
2. See Pahl. Yas. 42.1 a.
3. Ibid. 1 d.
4. See Pahl. Yas. 42.2 d.
5. Another folio of B is here
lost, containing the end of this chapter and the beginning of the next. The
passage missing was equivalent to about 100 lines of this translation, of which
perhaps three-fourths belong to this chapter and one-fourth to the next.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . 'produced the dawn and
noontide (aush repisp) . e. I fashioned sovereignty and the
desired complete mindfulness together , and produced, for more
advantageous disclosure, a son (bermanar-ae) for a father ; the disclosure
that discloses a male and the impregnation of a female, and in that disclosure a
son was produced by me for the father, O Zartosht!' f. So the evil spirit
observed, and he called upwards from the abyss thus: 'O beneficent spirit! thou
art the creator of all creatures, but I will make all thy
creatures old, O beneficent spirit!
g. About the religion becoming
progressive  in every one, through its renovation of the universe
and its future existence, there is this, too, namely: 'This thy
religion of Zartosht is the width of the world, and righteousness is the
best of religions; this thy religion of Zartosht is the improvement of the
world, which is first supplied by righteousness and complete mindfulness
in the reason (varom) of those who recite this thy revelation (deno)  of the
Mazda-worshippers, O Zartosht! this thy good religion is the best which it is
possible to provide with righteousness for one's own. h. Thou shouldst
proclaim this to kinsmen and confederates, to priests and him who is most
active in the country; as to those who will dispute  this thy religion
of the Mazda-worshippers, thou shouldst proclaim this over the earth of seven
regions, unto that which is the furthest of houses, villages, communities, and
provinces: "Do thou openly curse  these who are heretical towards me,
thou united Mazda-worship of Zartosht, opposed to the demons,
which is the ordinance of Ohrmazd !"'
i. Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'I will
exalt this which is beloved by thee, the religion of the Mazda-worship of
Zartosht, opposed to the demons, which is the ordinance of Ohrmazd. j. If
this which is thine had not been further loved by me, the Mazda-worship of
Zartosht, that is opposed to the demons and is the ordinance of Ohrmazd
would have lapsed into disaster (vinasishno) , so that the profession
of the religion of the Mazda-worshippers would be destroyed, that is, the
religion would not have become progressive, and no one would be after
the benefiters. k. But, owing to that love, O Zartosht! the
religion of the Mazda-worshippers becomes progressive  even then up to the
production of the renovation of the universe, even then until the
perpetual life of the existences, even then till the raising up of the dead, and
even then up to the full atonement of the spirits.'
l. About being despised
in hell; the wicked are scornful to a wicked one, and to the spirits apart
from the wicked ; and it is the creator who, even after saving the others
from hell, and the three nights stewing in hell , is to cause the
preservation of them also -- after those three nights -- from that misery, and every
one attains to happiness. m. This, too, that Zartosht inquired of Ohrmazd
thus: 'How have the ignorant demons, O Ohrmazd! ever been good rulers ? How
do they think of them in the world thus, that their happiness arose from them?' n.
And Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'They have been demons, O Zartosht! and evil-ruling;
not well-ruling, even for a reward, do they produce the work of righteousness
o. Perfect righteousness is
1. See Pahl. Yas. 43.5 d:
aushahino va-rapispino = Av. ushau arem-pithwa.
2. Ibid. 7 b.
3. Ibid. 7 c. The verbal
causative stem vindin, 'cause to find, or obtain, disclose,' is twice spelt
without its first letter, out of four occurrences; and bermanar is hybrid
Zvarish for pusar, in which berman = pus.
4. See Pahl. Yas. 43.8 c.
5. Ibid. 11 d.
6. Ibid. 13 c.
7. Assuming that naforino
stands for nafrino.
8. See Pahl. Yas. 1.65.
9. See Pahl. Yas. 43.19 d.
10. See Pahl. Yas.43.15 d, 17
11. The three nights' final
punishment of those worthy of death, to be inflicted at the time of the
resurrection (see Bd. 30.13, 16).
12. See Pahl. Yas. 43.20 a.
13. Ibid. 20 e.
1. The fifteenth fargard, Ad-fravakhshya
, is about the seven  perfections of the admonitions of the
religion. 2. First, association with the beneficent spirit of the creator,
through hearing , learning, and practicing his religion; and this,
too, that thereby arises the preservation of the good creation when the
destroyer is separated (vanjid). 3. Second, about separation from the
destructive evil spirit , and the contempt which is due to his
arrogance and falsehood, the chief of all his vice. 4. Third, governing the
temper  by good thoughts, good words, and good deeds : and this, that,
whoever of you does not so use this liturgy as thought and word , they will
not allot him light, they will not allot him the best
existence, and he is miserable up to the last . 5. Fourth, about the
perfection of the nature of next-of-kin marriage , which is when it is
a giving of one's own (khudih-dahishnih) and the decision given about it,
which is the goodness of one's own progeny for the manifestation of progeny;
also the relationship, sturdiness, effectiveness, advantageousness, ownership,
and giving in next-of-kin marriage. 6. Its first accomplishment was by
the creator Ohrmazd in the fatherhood of Vohuman  who was the first
progeny, and from that arising of the practice (var'z-yehevunih) came the
progress of the spiritual and worldly creatures and much connected therewith,
such as the arising of splendor from light, radiance from splendor, and lustrousness
from radiance, and the fully progressive diffusion and succession of
mankind till the renovation of the universe; also, through spiritual and
worldly passing on in the spiritual and worldly existences, Spandarmad's
 acceptance of the motherly glory was an ennoblement. 7. Fifth, about
providing and maintaining the high-priests  who are provided with a
spiritual lord and possessing priestly instruction the listening of his
authorities of every kind to Ohrmazd, and the reward of the beneficent good
works  of the high-priesthood, are authority for Ohrmazd; and the
reward of the good works of the high-priesthood is their relation to the
best existence. 8. Sixth, about the praise, obeisance, and ceremonial
 for the creator Ohrmazd; and this, too, that further conference with
Vohuman  arises, and wisdom and advantage  are taught by him thus:
'Thou shouldst be a supplicant for the immortal progress of the soul , O
Zartosht! so that Ohrmazd may be lord of the creatures , and the
practice of propitiation by mankind may be that for him, also a
proportion of the ordering of obeisance .' 9. About the sovereignty of
Ohrmazd  -- even through the reward given at the bridge of judgment
[[Chinwad]] -- which is in his good assemblies , those of the restorer of
the world, the destroyer of the evil one, and the benefiter.
10. This, too, is said, namely:
'Thou becomest, through complete mindfulness, O Spitaman! a perpetual adopter (giriftar)
of this ceremonial of mine .'
11. About Ohrmazd having given
power  to the creatures, the preparation  of the power, and the contempt
 for the evil spirit and his appliances; Ohrmazd and the creations
gave that contempt back to the evil spirit and the primary (kadmon) demons who
are those produced by the demons.
12. About the glorification of
Zartosht there is this, too, namely: 'Thou art beneficial, thou art
high-priest and master, and through thee exists the religion which is propitious
; thou art brother and companion of all the benefiters, and thus thy
friend  is Vohuman.'
13. Perfect is the
excellence of righteousness.
1. See Chap.
15, 1 n; it is here written ad-fravakhshe in Pahlavi.
2. Only six
are numbered in our text, but the seventh seems to be detailed in § 9.
3. See Pahl.
Yas. 44.1 a.
4. Ibid. 1 d,
5. Ibid. 3 a.
6. Ibid. 3 c,
7. Ibid. 3 e.
8. Ibid. 4 a.
There is nothing whatever about next-of-kin marriage in the original Avesta text
of this Gatha, but the Pahlavi translators (in order to interpolate authority
for such marriages) took advantage of the Avesta speaking metaphorically of
Mazda being father of Good Thought (Vohuman), and of Bountiful Devotion (Spandarmad)
as being Mazda's daughter; while they ignored the old tradition that Vohuman
was created before Spandarmad (see Bd. 1.23, 26). A translation of the
Pahlavi version of this Gatha passage is given in S.B.E., vol. xviii, pp.392,
9. See Pahl.
Yas. 44.4 c.
10. Ibid. 4 d.
11. Ibid. 5 a.
doubtful, as the repairer of the MS. has omitted the first two Pahlavi letters
of kirfako, 'good works,' when writing the word on a patch.
13. See Pahl.
Yas. 44.6 a, b, d.
14. Ibid. 6 d.
15. Ibid. 6 e,
16. See Pahl.
Yas. 44.7 c.
17. Ibid. 7 e.
18. Ibid. 8 a.
19. Ibid. 9 c.
This appears to be the seventh 'perfection' mentioned in § 1.
that hu-hambamiha stands for hu-hangamiha, just as hanbam is a common variant of
hangam. It might also mean 'good times,' but it seems to represent the incorrect
word amavandih in Pahl. Yas. 44.9 e, which each of the four MS. authorities
spells differently. Mf4 has hu-dandih which, no doubt, stands for an original
hu-zandih, 'good community,' a fair translation of Av. haozathwa, and well
expressed by 'good assemblies.'
21. See Pahl.
Yas. 44.10 a.
22. Ibid. 10
e, in which zako-i ought to be zor-i according to Pt4, Mf4, with which J2 partly
that nivaruno stands for nivardano.
24. See Pahl.
Yas. 44.11 b.
25. See Pahl.
Yas. 44.11 d.
26. Ibid. 11
1. In the sixteenth fargard,
Kamnamaeza ., about departure to any land whatever , in renewed search of
fortune, there is also this, namely: 'Do not stay away discontentedly
from this thy ceremonial and obeisance, O Zartosht! through love of us, when
they do not satisfy thee -- neither thy own, nor the confederate, nor the
companion, nor the serf, nor the wicked tyrant  -- by whom those who are
demons are wont to be worshipped. 2. And where and when thou art far from
us, even then do not stand aloof from our affairs; and also when the affairs of
the worldly existence shall not stand well for thee, even then thou
shouldst reverence us and shouldst pay us homage.' 3. So also this, that the
wish of the evil spirit is thus: 'Thou shouldst not reverence and shouldst not
pay homage to the archangels [[Amahraspands]]; and here  the people
shall possess neither lordship, nor priestly instruction -- that is, ruler and
high-priest --and their desire is not for perfect righteousness.
4. And this, too, is said, namely:
'0f the contracted  spirituality and deficient wealth , owing to
the little progress of men who are self-gratifiers, thou art aware, O Zartosht! thou
who art no seeker of this -- that is, this want of opulence of thine
-- because thou dost not know it [; but I perceive those words
of complaint of thine, of which I demand an account from thee .' 5. And this,
too, namely: 'Thou art aware of the gratification of desire  by
us who are archangels, and which we give for the gratification that thou
bringest forth (zihih); we also give thee the liberty which a friend gives to
him who is a friend .'
6. About what occurs in future
ages : the experienced (arvandan) who are beneficial through teaching
and practicing wisdom , and the thirst of youths is increased by them; by
the assistance of complete mindfulness they improve the world of righteousness
and produce distress for the fiend; and the advantage due to virtue extends to
them . And this, too, that he who is evilly oppressive has died off through
his own deeds . 8. About always opposing villains with as much
strength as exists, so that he who is a good ruler , whose high-priest is
the bounteous !liturgy (Mahraspand), my become predominant  over Wrath.
9. About the praise of the
renovators there is this, too, namely: 'Blessings on good understanding and also
on Mihr, whose punishment of sinners they shall inflict for this consideration,
that he is intelligent and friendly (mitro-pan) .' 10.
And, about adjudication as to a kinsman (nafshman) of any one
whatever, there is this, too, namely: 'Through a revival of Rashn,
whoever is righteous and also whoever is wicked -- that is, every one -- is to
be kept for judicial investigation ,' 11. This, too, namely: 'A kinsman is
to be considered as virtuous , by whom his own soul is preserved from
wickedness .' 12. And this, too, namely: 'So thy high-priest is he
whose own religion is pure .'
13. About the characteristics
of the fiend, the broken-down (khastako) Mani , and the destruction of the
wicked who were listening to him, that which came from him who was monarch.
14. And this, too, namely: 'The wicked one, who gives my world to that
which the malicious  Ahriman has established as supremacy (lalaih),
is he who is a self-wounding  demon that is set going for the death of the
world of righteousness which he praises. 15. The ceremonial of righteousness is
not such as that he praises, O Zartosht! the priestly authority of the worldly
settlements (gehanan) that he mentions thus: "In priestly authority and
high-priestship I am better (shapir) and am better suitable;"
and not so, O Zartosht! is that excretion (mutrishno)  he stirs up for
mankind; that which he mentions to them becomes a perpetual effusion from
him, and they who stirred up the excretion afterwards think it theirs, and that
which is a perfect ceremonial of the demons occurs. 16. Through the opposing
arrival of Srosh , the righteous, the ruler is in vexation with that person;
that ruler who is a protection of these others through good emanation
 -- not through evil living -- and at every time a distresser of the wicked
17. About the peculiarity of
attracters to the religion, and the good works of those attracted . 18.
About the signs of the last times, which are the millenniums of the sons
19. This, too, that they cause
disturbance (aāramend) unto the sovereignty, and they who are Kays and
Karbs , those even who are the most evil-ruling in the country -- who by
villainous deeds are those who destroy the existence of mankind through
statements, and destroy their own souls  -- also destroy the material
world which, confused by them, is more beloved than righteousness; even the
sovereignty is a scanty shelter, among the existences, from those whose command
is villainous, when they produce that which is vicious and deliver their
pupils (amukhtagano) to that which is their end (afdum), to the fiendish
20. And here, too, about the
praise of the family of the Fryanaks  it speaks thus: 'Righteousness comes
up, O Spitaman! from the descendants and posterity of Turan; when extracted by
the Fryanaks it is stated  just as though it were by Turan: through
the assistance of complete mindfulness they develop the world  of
righteousness and produce distress for the fiend; they likewise think about it
with Good Thought, O Zartosht! and thou shouldst bring forth (zayesh) their
gratification from us, who are archangels, by words, that is, do thou demand
21. This, too, is said, namely:
'This liberality which is for thee is for us who are archangels;
by him who shall provide liberality for thee , it is provided for us.' 22.
About the praise of Vishtasp there is this, too, namely: 'Kay Vishtasp  has
propitiated thee, among the existences, by liberal giving; that Vishtasp,
whose coming forth to thee in distress is through the reign of Vohuman, has
developed the material world of righteousness; thou shouldst think of him, the
good companion, O Zartosht the pure friend who is Kay Vishtasp ; such is
that Kay Vishtasp, the active, who, when he praises the religion, is attracting
fellow-dwellers and converts 'hem, that is, he brings them on to
the religion .'
23. About attracting the
Spitamas to the religion there is this, too, namely: 'Thou shouldst speak
thus to the Spitamas: "Praise righteousness with much homage about it
mentally; and a concession is to be discriminated by you, as well as whatever is
no concession ; even for those deeds of yours righteousness is the reward
given unto you that reward which is much given by Ohrmazd .", 24. About
the place of the four marvels produced by Ohrmazd in yonder world: there
where is the reign of Vohuman , there where is the hospitality of Ohrmazd
, there where religion is along with complete mindfulness , and
there where are the souls of the liberal .
25. About advice to Zartosht as
to speech, made for mankind, which is proportionate -- abandoning want of
proportion -- which is an appropriation of liberality with humility and a wise
proportion  for good works. 26. This, too, namely: 'To him who gives himself
mentally up to thee in discipleship, thou also shouldst give up the best which thou
hast to give of thine own; and thou shouldst give wealth to him who shall
give wealth to thee , because so thy soul would be perfect, O righteous
Zartosht! when it shall act thus.' 27. This, too: 'Thou shouldst select this
religion of mine with wisdom and also with thought .' 28. This, too,
that as to him who has to act with the freedom from effort (apesitunagih)
of righteousness  and owing to it, for the good works done by
him the gift is good. 29. This, too, that whoever seeks by good works, and
seeks good works by innocence, obtains freedom from harm (a-nasih); and whoever
is liberal to the sacred beings  is free from destruction (a-nasinishno),
owing to the liberality of the sacred beings. 30. And this, too, namely:
'These are the rewards I am aware of , which have been, which still
are. and which ever will be.'
31. Perfect excellence is
1. See Chap.
16.1 n; it is here written kamnamezo in Pahlavi.
2. See Pahl.
Yas. 45.1 a.
3. Ibid. 1 b,
4. In this
that tak stands for tang.
6. See Pahl.
Yas. 45.2 b.
7. Ibid. 2 a.
8. Ibid. 2 c.
9. Ibid. 2 d.
10. Ibid. 3 a.
11. Ibid. 3 c.
12. Ibid. 3 d.
13. Ibid. 4 c.
14. Ibid. 4 d.
15. Ibid. 5 a.
16. See Pahl.
Yas. 45.5 b. For Mihr see Book 8, Chap. 44.16 n.
17. Ibid. 5 c.
For Rashn see Bk. 8, Chap. 20.153 n.
18. Ibid. 5 d.
19. Ibid. 5 e.
20. Ibid. 7 e.
arch-heretic who was born in A. D. 215-6, first preached his doctrines on
the coronation day of king Shahpur I (20th March, 242), and was put to
death by order of Bahram I in A.D. 276-7 (see Nöldeke's Gesch. der Sas. pp.
47, 412, 415). From the mode in which he and his followers are mentioned in §§ 13-16, it would seem that the original Pahlavi version of
this Nask must have been made at a time when this heresy was still fresh in
men's memories, as it would have been in the first half of the fourth century,
when Adarbad Mahraspandan was collecting and revising the sacred books.
22. See Pahl.
Yas. 45.8 a.
23. Ibid. 8 b.
Pahl. Yas. 47.10 b.
25. See Bk. 8.
Chap. 9.3 n.
26. See Pahl.
Yas. 45.8 c, d. This last word (hu-zahishnih) ought certainly to be hu-zivishnih,
27. Ibid. 8 e.
28. Ibid. 10
29. Ibid. 11
a; also see Bk. 8, Chap. 35.13 n.
30. Ibid. 11
31. Pahl. Yas.
32. A Turanian
family of Mazda-worshippers, of whom Yoishta is specially mentioned in the
Avesta (see Bk. 8, Chap. 13.18 n); and it appears from Dd. 90.3 that
Ashem-yahmai-ushta of Yt. 13.120 was another member of the same family.
33. See Pahl.
Yas. 45.12 b.
34. Ibid. 12
c, and compare §
35. Ibid. 12
36. Ibid. 13
37. See Bk. 8,
Chaps. 11.1, 13.15.
38. See Pahl.
Yas. 45.13 e.
39. Ibid. 14
40. Ibid. 15
b, c, d.
41. Ibid. 16
42. Ibid. 16
43. Ibid. 16
44. Ibid. 16
45. Ibid. 17
a, b, c, e.
46. Ibid. 18
a, b, c.
47. See Pahl.
Yas. 45.18 e.
48. Ibid. 19
a. All but the last syllable of apesitunagih is written by the repairer of the
MS. on one of his patches, but the word is a strange equivalent for Av. haithim.
49. Ibid. 19
50. Ibid. 19
1. The seventeenth fargard,
Spenta-mainyu , is about this, that Ohrmazd produced the creatures through
wisdom, and maintains them in truth. 2. This, too, that the best thing  for
every one is thought in a high-priest who is the tongue of a spiritual lord
; in a high-priest, who has to maintain thought, no appliances of the
body are to lie unto the spiritual lord on account of affection for the
worldly existence. 3.
Also that the spiritual lord is always true; of the tongue -- when he (the priest)
speaks falsehood with the tongue -- are those words which he does not believe
through the spiritual lord, and it is owing to this, too, when, of all the body,
the tongue first dies. 4. 'I say unto thee, O Spitaman! that thou shouldst speak
with the tongue just as thou thinkest with the mind, and thou shouldst
accomplish work with both hands in complete mindfulness ,' 5. And this, too,
that he who shall act thus is sagacious, and he is the father of righteousness
through wisdom ; and whoever would do that which has happened, thoroughly
observes it on account of that which has not happened. 6. Also this, that
in the person of him who shall do that which he understands, and asks
again about that which he does not understand, the propitious spirit of wisdom
7. About cattle being produced
for the assistance of mankind, and the pastures of pleasure for the assistance of
cattle . 8. This, too, that the archangels injure the evil demon and
wicked people, but they do not injure righteous people  and the sage. 9.
This, too, is said, namely: 'In scanty opulence do not murmur (al mang)
owing to good works , and thus in great opulence much good work arises.' 10.
This, too, that beneficence gives all to the good, and it is no further the
villain whom the sacred beings maintain .
11. About the tongue of a
true speaker being for the satisfying (vijarishno) of disputants,
and for declaring
who is acquitted or incriminated; and the ordeal that is a demonstrator,
to acquit or convict, which he whose tongue is truthful has
accepted -- and it shall make his statement current -- has developed its
jurisdiction in the world, and diminished distress. 12. And this, too, is
said, that he gives out fire for disputes. so that it may make manifest
the acquitted and incriminated, when he in whom are his immense complete
mindfulness, and also righteousness, is guardian of the ordeal; and, when many
inspect it; that which is the ritual of the ordeal believes them wicked .
13. Perfect is the excellence
1. See Chap.
17.1 n; it is here written spend-mato in Pahlavi, and is called the 18th fargard
2. See Pahl.
Yas. 46.2 a.
3. Ibid. 2 b.
4. See Pahl.
Yas. 46.2 c.
5. Ibid. 2 d.
6. Ibid. 3 c.
7. Ibid. 4 a,
8. Ibid. 4 c.
9. Ibid. 5 b,
10. See Pahl.
Yas. 46.6 b, c, d.
1. The eighteenth fargard, Yezi
, is about the existence of certain and doubtful evidence and indication as
to the future existence  arising. 2. About the great dignity of the
spirit of good works, and that also of the person doing good works through the
lodgment of that spirit in him. 3. This, too, that they praise, recount, and
practice the religion of Mazda-worship at the time of the renovation of the
universe, that of which the demons through deceitfulness, and then also
wicked mankind deceived by those who are demons, have said that it does
not occur .
4. About the triumph of the
sacred beings over the demons at the end of various periods. 5. First,
that which occurs when, on account of the preservation of mankind from
hell, they praise the religion of Mazda-worship; and that which occurs when
Zartosht the Spitaman, whose guardian spirit is reverenced, came to the
obedient king Kay Vishtasp . 6. Second, when the power and triumph of renewed
sovereignty are again connected with the religion, and mankind, on that account,
return to the good religion and this occurs on the near approach of Aushedar
, son of Zartosht, when the righteous Chitrag-miyan  arrives. 7. Third,
when mankind contentedly praise the religion of the Mazda-worshippers, and this
occurs as Aushedar-mah , son of Zartosht, arrives. 8. And fourth, that
which occurs when every one shall practice the religion of Mazda-worship
with eagerness; at that time arrives the beneficial and triumphant
producer of the renovation, Soshyant , son of Zartosht; and this
becomes the consummation (sar-homondih) and supreme triumph of the sacred
9. About inquiring of him who
is acquainted with religion and a wise priest concerning the religion, and
hearing of it from him ; also well understanding it through wisdom.
10. About abstaining from the secret proceedings (nihan-homondih) of a
deceitful and seductive apostate . 11. This, too, is said, namely:
'Thou shouldst also not fall into the downcast imprisonment (nikun alakib)
through the teaching they deceive, where they thus mislead thee to the downcast
imprisonment which is hell.'
12. About mankind attaining to
the wisdom of an angel (yedato danogih)  through the grades of intellect,
ability, and religion. 13. This, too, is said, namely: 'It is for
that way when mankind cause the disturbance (siklinend) of that which is
a vile religion for want of a way, when even this is produced from among the
creatures, in which is the opening of a passage for mankind to him, where
the evil spirit is dwelling and making thee surrender, and on account of
the stupefying Akoman .' 14. This, too, that, through the sovereignty of
sagacity, every one at last arrives at that way. 15. And this, too, that by
him, who shall persistently perform good works or sin with fearlessness,
it is to be hereupon considered that his performance is mindful , and
that the best thing for mankind, after birth, is purification from sin .
16. This, too, that the food and
maintenance of the priests depend upon the husbandmen . 17. This,
too, that coveted is now the pleasure and strength of mankind due to the cattle
of Hordad and Amurdad . 18. About the oppressiveness of Wrath
and Envy, and the destruction of both through complete mindfulness and
possession of Good Thought . 9. And this is said, namely: 'I
made the religion of righteousness a combining desire (voyak-i ham-dahishno
), and all mankind's own selves are to be forced into that desire;
also its involuntary seeking of immortality is the reign of the will of all
mankind, and advantage always arises from it .' 20. This, too, that the care
of cattle is reverence of Ohrmazd .
21. About the progress  of
righteousness there is this, too, that that greatness  is generated
therefrom, and its seekers -- who are human beings -- have demanded the supreme
predominance in the best existence. 22. About the praise of the period of the
renovation of the universe there is this, too, that, at that time, those
who are doubtful about it are all disclosed to publicity ; also the
last reward and bridge judgment of the worthy. 23. About the lawfulness
of that which occurs through the destruction by Vohuman , who is
himself the spiritual lord of the arrangement, there is this, too, that the
at that time, become aware of
their own wickedness, when their bodies are dissipated. 24. About the
destruction of the good works of the wicked, also that of their own souls, that
of their spiritual existences, and that of their material bodies
. 25. And this, too, that at the time of the renovation of the universe
occurs the approach of the wisdom of our sovereignty to that of the
best of mankind, and that glory is put on by it through which the destruction of
the bad and the development of the good arise; also the sagacity
which exists in Vohuman extends to those who are its friends .
26. This, too, that there are
those who are extenders of the days, and they are beneficial in the country
; and their custom, where they have arisen, is an opponent of him who is a
wrathful person . 27. And this, too, that they shall thereupon excite (lala
vadidunand) a brother and sister with mutual desire, so that they shall form a
next-of-kin marriage with unanimity; and before midday they generate a sublime
radiance, centered in the face, and trembling passion , and they make
the radiance grow up, openly manifest, to an altitude of the height of three
spears of the length of three reeds each ; and after midday
they have learnt expulsion (ranakih) , and shall remove the fiend who
was before a destroyer. 28. About those who girdle themselves
where they shall perform their proper duty, and are thus all-beneficent
for being seen.
29. Perfect is the excellence of
1. See Chap.
18.1 n; it is here called the 19th fargard by mistake in the MS.
2. See Pahl.
Yas. 47.1 a.
3. Ibid. 1 b.
4. See Bk. 8,
Chaps. 11.1, 13.15.
5. See Bk. 8,
6. A title of
Peshyotanu, son of king Vishtasp, who remains immortal as chief high-priest of
Kangdez, whence he is expected to come to restore the religious rites in Iran
and the rest of the world (see Bd. 29.5, Byt. 3, 25-32, 36-39, 41, 42, 51, 52).
7. See Bk. 8,
8. Ibid. 14.
9. See Pahl.
Yas. 47.3 a, b.
10. See Pahl.
Yas. 47.3 c.
11. The use of
ō for ā sometimes occurs in MSS. from Iran. The word can also be read
shavandagih, 'existence,' but this meaning is less likely.
12. See Bk. 8,
Chap. IX, 3 n.
13. See Pahl.
Yas. 47, 4 c.
14. Ibid. 5 c.
15. Ibid. 5 d.
16. See Pahl.
Yas. 47.6 a, b; also Chap. 19.1.
17. Ibid. 7 a,
18. Ibid. 7 c,
where, however, this last word can be read asaminishno, 'unalarming' (asahaminishno
in Pt4, Mf4), and the corresponding word in Pahl. Yas. 34.10 b can be read
asamishno, 'intrepid;' but, as these meanings are difficult to reconcile with
those of the original Av. hithaosh, hitham, it seems more probable that the
first syllables asam or asaham, should be read hisam or hisām, a mere
transcript of Av. hithãm.
19. Ibid. 8 a.
20. Ibid. 8 b.
these two words, rubakih, 'progress,' and rabaih, 'greatness,' should be alike,
but it is doubtful which is correct.
22. See Pahl.
Yas. 47.9 b.
23. Ibid. 9 c.
24. See Pahl.
Yas. 47.11 c.
25. Ibid. 11
26. Ibid. 12
27. Ibid. 12
28. Reading as
follows:- lala zerkhund roshano pavan miyan rod buland navendako khros, but some
of the words can be read otherwise, as in S.B.E., vol. xviii, p.395, or with
further variations; and it is doubtful if the verb is to be -construed with the
words that follow it, contrary to the usual Pahlavi rule, as there is no other
trace of Avesta construction in this section. Neither the Avesta, nor the
Pahlavi, version of this chapter of the Gathas makes any allusion to the
subjects mentioned in §§ 27, 28.
29. It appears
from Dd. 43.5 that this total of nine reeds would be about forty-eight human
feet of fourteen finger-breadths (see Farh. Oim, p. 41, l 1), or 10 1/2 inches,
each; so that the height here mentioned would be about forty-two English feet.
capability of expelling fiends.
1. The nineteenth fargard, Ad
ma-yava , is about the protection by a protector for the protection of
the distressed ones of the renovation of the universe . 2.
About the impossibility of convincing those who have not attained to the
fundamental reason (bun chim) of belief, before making them comprehensibly
reliant upon the existence of the creator, which is the fundamental reason of
3. About the grievous suffering
(vimarih) of the religion owing to him who is a wicked judge, whose effusions (rezidano)
on the judgment seat are injudicious, malevolent, and enemies of wisdom;
also wounding is owing to truth , and his annoyance owing to the
truthful, and the evil spirit is lodging in him; likewise the advantage to
the religion and great reward of just judges, and the introduction
(madam-barishnih) of a desire
for leadership in virtuousness  4. About separation from the friendship of a
wicked, ill-judging, unintelligent, and idle person, in whom wrath and
envy are coiled up (avarpeko) . 5. About the good government of securers of
their own necks (chavarman) from viciousness, and the bad government of those
repeatedly culpable (lakhvar-ahugan) owing to viciousness. 6. And this, too,
that the wicked themselves are wicked to their own and make them fit for hell,
even as to those who  are precious to them and more beloved than
righteousness; and their reign, too, is a scanty protection (gashuko
7. About the praise of Zartosht
there is this, too, namely: Thy sweetness and mildness are shown to the
worldly existences, thy leadership of the religion is through Vohuman, and thou
art well conversant with righteousness .' 8. About the praise of Frashostar's
ardor in the leadership of good works, in virtuousness , listening to instruction,
and truthful speaking, and in pasturing (fshegih), cultivating the world,
achieving benefit (sudo tashidarih), and not giving leadership to villains ,
9. About the praise also of the energy and high-priestship of Jamasp
. 10. About the protection of the good creations by Vohuman, and that, too,
of the souls of righteous by Spandarmad also .
11. About the punishment of the
wicked ruler is seizing anything unlawfully in his realm. 12. Also about
the grievous punishment of the wicked, evil- thinking, evil-speaking,
evil-doing, heretical (dush-deno), evil ruler in hell . 13. About reply of
the archangels to Zartosht, as to the reward begged by him, to make him satisfied
about it .
14. It is righteousness that is
1. See Chap. 19.1 n; it is here
written ad-mag-yuv in Pahlavi.
2. See Pahl. Yas. 48.1 a.
3. Ibid. 2 a, b.
4. See Pahl. Yas. 48.3 b, c.
5. Ibid. 4a.
6. Assuming that amat stands
for mun, their Iranian equivalents being much alike.
7. See Pahl. Yas. 48.5 a, b, c.
8. Ibid. 8 a, b, c and Bk. 8,
Chap. 38.68 n.
9. Ibid. 9 a, b, in which Pt4,
Mf4 have tashidar instead of the khvastar of K5, J2; regarding fshegih (= Av.
fshengh'hyo) see Bk. 8, Chap. 22.6 n.
10. Ibid. 9 d and Bk. 8, Chap.
11. See Pahl. Yas. 48.10 a, b,
c and Bk. 8, Chap. 9.3 n.
12. Ibid. 11 a, b.
13. Ibid. 12 b, d. In Pt4, Mf4,
§ b is
as follows: 'Mun Zaratushto chigun lak Vohuman;' being correctly limited
according to the Avesta text.
1. The twentieth fargard,
Kad-moi-urva , is about anything whatever being begged as provision
for the soul , and as to the speaking of Shahrewar  to Zartosht thus:
'Thou shouldst think thus, O Spitaman! that Ohrmazd assists thee.' 2. This, too,
is said, that the creatures of Ohrmazd live through Hordad , are
immortal through Amurdad , possess complete mindfulness of Ohrmazd through
Spandarmad , and possess him as ruler through Shahrewar.
3. About wealth being begged
owing to virtuousness there is this, too, that, to him who, owing to
virtuousness, begs that which is not allowed to him owing to the oppressiveness of
the vile, or on account of some other opposition, they then give
essentially that reward, in the spiritual existence which is greater and
better than that wealth. 4. About the cattle suitable for that
warrior who possesses virtuous habits and strength , through the
assistance of the will of the sacred beings and for the benefit of Iran and the
defeat of the diminishing foreign force (kastarih-i an-Airano).
5. About the seizure  of
mankind for the advancement of the admonition and command of the
sacred beings, so far as force is an assistant to them in knowledge due to the
sacred beings ; and their appropriation of the best existence
through the advancement of that admonition and command.
6. About the assistance of the
righteous, on the passage to the best existence, by the spirit of the wisdom of
sovereignty, liberality, and truth, Ashishwangh  and the angel Hom
7. About the reason of the
three steps walked forward by the Zot from the place of the Zot, while uttering
the Avesta (avistako-gobishniha), after the end of the ritual for the fire, on
delivering (parvazishno) the offering of holy-water [[zohr]] to the water , being
the leading up of the archangels, always at the end of an assembly of conference
with Zartosht, by three steps from the earth to the sun station, through the
places of good thoughts, good words, and good deeds .
8. Advice to Zartosht also as
to the nature of the archangels; likewise a reminder to worship on their
account after separation from the sight of them. 9. And this, too, is
said, that there arises therefrom a conception (ham-giriftarih), by him
whose disposition and character are sagacious , also as to the adaptation of
his own deeds to that nature of his. 10. And about the good affinity of Zartosht,
even for abundance of good works, there is this, too, namely: 'So, for
all those deeds which thou hast to accomplish, and which are
also accomplished, there is reward for thee through their righteousness, O
11. And about the advice to
Zartosht there is this, too, namely: 'Thou hast to become reverent
to them , so that mankind may become reverent to thee.' 12.
About considering the time of the days and nights as all for good
accumulation in good works there is this, too, that whoever is diligent and
always doing good works, and that whoever shall perform as many good
works as is possible for him, is given as much reward  as is his desire.
13. It is righteousness that
is perfect excellence.
1. See Chap. 20.1 n; it is here
written kad-mog-ravako in Pahlavi.
2. See Pahl. Yas. 49.1 a.
3. An archangel who is a
personification of the Avesta phrase khshathra-vairya, 'desirable dominion.'
4. For these three archangels
see Chaps. 12.25 n, 19.1 n, and Bk. 8, Chap. 9.3.
5. See note 4.
6. See Pahl. Yas. 49.3 a, c.
7. Ibid. 7 d.
8. This proviso implies some
faint perception of the absurdity of trying to assist almighty beings by human
9. See Bk. 8, Chap. 9.3 n.
10. A personification of the
Av. Haoma plant, an infusion of the dried twigs of which is used in the
religious ceremonial. Yas. 9 and 10 are devoted to his praise.
11. See Pahl. Yas. 49.8 a. This
refers to the proceedings of the chief officiating priest in the ceremonial,
after the conclusion of the Atash Niyayesh (Yas. 62) and just before the
beginning of the Aban Niyayesh (Yas. 65), during the recital of Yas. 64 which
chiefly consists of a repetition of §§
6-11 of this Gathic ha (Yas. 50 = 49 of the Pahlavi version). These proceedings
are detailed in the rubrics, partially in J2 and more fully in Pt4, Mf4, as
follows: After reciting Av. Yas. 50, 7 d 'the barsom (Av. baresman, see Bk. 8,
Chap. 44.65 n) is to be taken up from the Mah-rui,' or crescent-topped barsom-stand,
'and one step is to be set forth in the direction of the Frabardar' (the
imaginary assistant priest whose station is near the north-east corner of the
ceremonial area, or to the left of the Zot, see Chap. 33.5 n), 'at this place of
taking up the barsom from the Barsom-stand, and of going on to the position of
the Frabardar, a beginning of Yas. 50.8 a is to he made in walking towards the
beginning of the fire place, until Yas. 50.11 d is to be uttered,' in the
following manner: - After 'mad vau one step is to be set forth, and homage
to be offered to the holy-water;' after 'padaish one step, and homage to he
offered to the holy-water;' after 'ya frasruta izhayau one step is to he set
forth, and he is to go on to the position of the Abard' (the imaginary
assistant priest whose station is near the south-east corner, so that the
progress of the Zot towards the fire is along the left-hand side of the
ceremonial area), and, after reciting the rest of the Gathic text to the end of
Yas. 50.11 d, 'homage is to be offered to the fire, and he is to go away to the
position of the Zot.'
12. The three lower grades of
heaven, intermediate between the earth and the best existence or supreme heaven
(Garothman), and situated in the stations of the stars, moon, and sun,
respectively (see A.V. 7-10, MX 7.9-12).
13. See Pahl. Yas. 49.9 d.
14. Ibid. 10 d.
15. Ibid. 11 d.
1. In the twenty-first
fargard, Vohu-khshathrem , it is said by Ohrmazd thus: 'I produced, O
Zartosht! the desire for a good ruler ;' and this, too, is said, that,
when there is a desire for a good ruler suitable for a share of
the world, whoever is suitable for a share of the world [is a development of
that character also, owing to the share which is given him, and by him who is
himself also developing the character, by giving him a share] , giving the
share is producing a helper (vijidar), production of a helper is a perfect
action , and superiority of action is owing to thought and speech.
2. About the place where
the best wealth is the produce of water, earth, and plants; also its best
supplication is lamentation for the religion. and the sovereignty is liberality.
3. About favors being begged from the sacred beings, even with words
controverting the response of the sacred beings; the favors for the
worthy are to be contended for worthily. 4. About the connection of the
power of intelligent remembrance and wise discrimination, one with the other. 5.
About the attraction of the mercy of the spirit and leadership ,
together, into the supreme heaven (Garothman), for observation regarding the
6. About the begging and
teaching of that intelligence which is with the increase of good works; also the
imperceptible acquirement  of wealth occurs thereby. 7. This, too, that
whoever gives himself up, with humility and reverence, to him who is a
high-priest of the true religion, is proficient (far'-zanaki-aito) in the
religion ; and the benefit produced by him, for him who is good, is the
liberality which is provided for the sacred beings . 8. About Ohrmazd
having created water, plants, animals , and the law of the primitive
religion for the nourishment, arrangement, and succession of the creatures. 9.
About the comfort of the spirit of the liturgy of the religion
when he who is a man of credible wisdom and superior disposition utters it .
10. This, too, that the wicked one
who does not believe the deception that he teaches to others, which is his
through his own spiritual lord, yet, when he teaches multitudes (kabedan), is
convinced by it, attains -- as the end of that teaching -- eminence (padgahih)
for bare-faced deceit (barahnako fradipih), public falsehood, and disjointed
11. And about mankind being
bodily prepared also for the future existence by fire and melted ore ; in
the worldly existence the acquitted and incriminated, as regards the law,
have become thereby manifest , and, in the future existence, the
torment of the wicked and the gratification of the righteous . 12.
About Vohuman and Ardwahisht being invoked  for assistance also in
danger from the wicked, and about appropriating the best existence through
righteousness alone. 13. And this, too, that a happy coming of men to the
supreme heaven exists for the righteous, but no  coming of any one
from the wicked.
14. About the enmity of the Kay
 sodomite (vaepo)  Akht, the heretic of the dark existence , to
Zartosht; and the causing of disturbance (siklinidano), by him and the
wicked of similar kinds to him, among those who follow Zartosht is
extreme, and the primeval hellish existence is for them . 15. About
the closing of the abode of the Kay and Karb from virtuousness ; and this,
too, that they do not develop the worldly existences, nor attend to the
spirit, but they contract the world and dissipate the spirit .
16. About the worthiness of the
sovereignty of Kay Vishtasp , on account of great ability and activity,
apart even from superintending. 17. About the praise of Frashostar  for his having
given Hvov  in marriage to Zartosht, the praise of Hvov for her complete
reverence of Zartosht, and admonition to Zartosht as to making Hvov privileged
for the post of house-mistress . 18. About the praise of Jamasp  for
begging fortune and for wisdom in appropriating the excellence of the
primitive righteousness; also his affection for the sovereignty and for
the recitation of revelation, in which there is assistance of Zartosht
through command of Vohuman . 19. About the praise of Maidok-mah  for his
accepting and exercising -- and on account of his exercising -- the
upholding and propagation of the religion; also the yelling, united
assault, evil food, and other affliction owing to the wicked in the
earlier half of the night, which is that which Zartosht had, for a like reason,
to bear; and the reciting of the law of Ohrmazd , for the joy of the sacred
beings, and his appropriation of the best existence.
20. About the abounding of
Zartosht in complete mindfulness of the origin of learning, and its development
by him ; both the object and the advantage of knowledge -- which is the
reigning of Vohuman in the body -- being the means of developing the
world in righteousness . 21. About the perfection of the ceremonial  and
obeisance of Zartosht, and the superiority  of his recompense ; also
advice to him as to worshipping Ohrmazd preeminently, and the primeval
angels by their own names  according to their greatness.
22. It is the excellence of righteousness
that is perfect.
1. See Chap. 21.1 n; it is here
written vohu-khshatar in Pahlavi, and is called the 22nd fargard by mistake.
2. See Pahl. Yas. 50.1 a.
3. The passage in brackets was
at first omitted in the MS. by mistake, and subsequently interlined and written
in the margin with a different ink.
4. See Pahl. Yas. 50.1 c.
5. Ibid. 4 a.
6. Ibid. 5 a.
7. Ibid. 5 c.
8. See Pahl. Yas. 50.6 a.
9. Ibid. 7 a.
10. Ibid. 8 c; nevagtar is
written by mistake for nevagtar, 'superior,' in the MS.
11. Ibid. 9 b and Chap. 32.25
12. Ibid. 9 a.
13. Ibid. 9 c.
14. Ibid. 10 c.
15. Assuming that rai stands
16. See Bk. 8, Chap. 35.13 n.
17. See Pahl. Yas. 50.12 a.
18. Akhtyo duzhdau temanguhau
of Yt5.82; the wizard Akht of the tale of Yavisht-i Friyan.
19. See Pahl. Yas. 50.14 c.
20. Ibid. 14 a.
21. Ibid. 14 b.
22. Ibid. 16 a and Bk. 8, Chap.
23. Ibid. 17 a and Bk. 8, Chap.
24. Ibid. 17 b. Av. Hvovi of
Yt13.139, Yt16.15; she was daughter of Frashostar and wife of Zartosht.
25. Ibid. 17 c.
26. Ibid. 18 a and Bk. 8, Chap.
27. See Pahl. Yas. 50.18 b.
28. Ibid. 19 a and Chap. 24.1.
29. Ibid. 19 c.
30. Ibid. 21 a.
31. Ibid. 21 b.
32. Ibid. 22 a.
33. Assuming that avartih
stands for avartarih.
34. See Pahl. Yas. 50.22 b.
35. Ibid. 22 c.
1. The twenty-second fargard,
Vahistoishti  is about the perfection of the prayers  of the good
religion, and information thereon.
2. About the glory of a family
of some houses that has come to the Spitamas , even before the coming of
Zartosht; the knowledge and habit of organization and priestly authority of
those arising from that family; the existence therein of houses,
villages, communities, and districts; its attracting and exalting
mankind, from vice to virtue, by propriety of words and actions; and it
convinces those of the world even till the arrival of the good religion. 3. And
this, too, that the existence of Kay Vishtasp -- that desire of Zartosht
 -- and of Frashostar of the Hvovas , is owing to it.
4. About the praise of
Pouruchast , daughter of Zartosht, for loving the good religion with wisdom
and acting by the advice of the religion, having given herself
contentedly in womanly service (zanoih) to Zartosht ; her complete
accomplishment of duty and reverence for bin,, and, after Zartosht, her also
performing womanly service (zanih) and reverence for Jamasp ; likewise
her great reward from Ohrmazd for religiousness and self-devotion (khveshih)
to the sacred beings. 5. About the praise of Hutos  for the arising of the
progress of the Mazda-worshipping religion through her, by the growth of
righteousness and smiting of the primeval fiend; also the good
works and advantage which have arisen in the world from her great
possessions, and her equal praise and grand position here and in yonder world.
6. About the characteristics of
those who are preparing the end of time and arranging its period there
is this, too, namely: They are a manifestation of those, O Spitaman
Zartosht! who shall cause this renovation in the existences; they are observant,
little afflictive in tormenting, and fully mindful, so that, when milk
reaches them, they thoroughly digest it; they have no fear and
accouterments (afzar), nor yet do they mention false and irreverent
(anasto) statements concerning those who are righteous through imploring
righteousness.' 7. About the characteristics of those disturbing the end of
time and opposing its period there is this, too, namely: 'They are a
manifestation of those, O Spitaman Zartosht! who are destroying the existences
; they are swiftly remedied, that is, they become very quickly devoured (khaido)
and are in the torment of the vicious and grievous abode; they are
not fully mindful, so that it is not possible for them to digest milk,
their fear is inevitable (achar), and they mention even false and
irreverent statements concerning those who are righteous through imploring
8. About the craving for the
fiend, the assistance of the fiend, and the gratification of the fiend by him
who is an apostle of the demons, and his rendering the creatures of Ohrmazd
helpless  even through the want of progress (anasachishno) which they
lament; also the confusion owing to his speaking deceitfully in the world, and
the connection with him of an awful and swift death , and the most
grievous and hellish punishment. 9. About that wicked follower and
assistant of theirs in defeating righteousness, and also in destroying
the greater religiousness (freh-denoih) of the world and making the soul
wicked in the end.
10. About the occurrence of the
dissipation of the glory of him who is a well-ruling man, and the pacification (asudano)
of the creatures of the world by the sacred beings, it says this, too, namely:
'The persuader to evil  and the organizer of distress (veshishno) --
where they shall make pain and distress current in the world -- are the weakener
(nerefsinidar) and corrupter (alayidar) for the righteous ; it is the ruler that
is righteous who smites them and opposes them -- that is, restrains them from
sin -- and causes hatred for them through his will ; that, O Ohrmazd! is
this dominion of thine by which you give benefits (vehigano) to him
who is justly living and poor .'
11. It is perfect excellence
that is righteousness.
1. See Chap. 22.1 n.
2. See Pahl. Yas. 52.1 a.
3. The family from which
Zartosht, Maidok-mah, and Pouruchast were descended. Its name originated with
Spitama, an ancestor of Zartosht nine generations back. Compare Chap.
4. Perhaps we ought to read
'the Spitama Zartosht,' substituting Spitamak for kamak, 'desire,' which latter
word is written on a patch by the repairer of the MS. who must have found the
original word defective. See Pahl. Yas. 52.2 c.
5. See Chap. 21.24.
6. See Pahl. Yas. 52.3 a. Av.
Pourukista who became the wife of Jamasp, prime minister of king Vishtasp.
7. Ibid. 4 a. It seems unlikely
that zanoih means 'marriage' here (the term being applied to her relation both
to Zartosht and Jamasp), unless we were to suppose that she married Jamasp after
her father's death, which the phrase akhar min Zartosht, 'after Zartosht,' might
possibly imply. And if zanoih means merely 'womanly service' here, its Zvarish
equivalent nesmanih, applied to the seven sisters of Arda Viraf in AV.2.10 may
also not imply marriage, which is a view already suggested in S.B.E., vol. xviii,
8. See Pahl. Yas. 52.4 b.
9. Ibid. 5 a. Av. Hutaosa, the
wife of king Vishtasp, see Yt9.26, Yt15.35.
10. See Pahl. Yas. 52.6 e.
11. Or it may be 'maintaining
the affliction of the creatures,' if we read azardarih instead of akargarih.
12. See Pahl. Yas. 52.8 d.
13. Ibid. 9 a. B has avehih
verenakinidar, but avehih, 'want of goodness,' ought to be dushih, 'evil,' which
it resembles even more in appearance than in meaning, in Pahlavi letters.
14. See Pahl. Yas. 52.9 c.
15. Ibid. 9 d. Compare Chap.
1. The twenty-third fargard,
Airyaman , is the Airyaman supplication :-'That is the greatest, I
tell thee, O Spitaman! of the pure sayings of every kind, in so much Avesta
lore, this is the best, because it is given forth by him who is a very eminent
producer (madam-kartar) of sayings of every kind. 2. Which Airyaman supplication
they should recite who are beneficial , and the benefiter , through
the recital of it aloud, O Spitaman! becomes predominant. 3. The evil spirit who
is heretical (dushdeno), O Zartosht! with his own creatures, O Spitaman! becomes
buried in the earth; the evil spirit is among those buried in the
earth -- who are the demons -- where their bodily form (kalpudo) is completely
shattered. 4. And up the dead are arrayed by it; through its assistance they
give life back unto the body, and the embodied life they then possess is such
that they do not die.'
5. It is perfect is the
excellence of righteousness; it is perfect excellence that is righteousness.
(End of the account of the
1. See Chap.
23.1 n; it is here written Airemano in Pahlavi.
2. See Pahl.
Yas. 53.1 and Bk. 8, Chap. 44.81.
sud-homond = Av. saoshyas [Soshyant], referring to the future restorer of
religion to the world, just before the renovation of the universe.